What are financial markets and how does it function

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Financial markets are designed for the purchase and sale of financial items such as stocks, securities, shares, and bonds. It makes it simpler for those in need of funds to get in touch with those looking to invest. Financial markets provide a setting where all participants, regardless of their size, will receive equal treatment. It helps to lessen the unemployment rate because of all the employment opportunities it offers.

Fintech(Financial Technology), aims to enhance and automate the provision of financial services. Certain software and artificial intelligence in fintech assist businesses, and individuals in managing their finances in a better way. Several positive measures taken by governments around the world are fostering the growth of fintech.

If you're interested in finance, keep reading to learn more about the financial market. 

What is traded in financial markets?

Financial instruments like shares, bonds, and mutual funds are traded in the financial market. 

  1. Shares- To profit from your investment, purchase shares to sell them back at a high price. Volatility is the continual fluctuation in share prices. Profits in stock market trading are made feasible by volatility. 
  2. Derivatives- Financial contracts known as derivatives are made between two or more parties and draw their value from an asset or collection of assets.

It increases the potential risks and rewards for the people involved in this. 

  1. Bonds- Bonds guarantee a specific interest rate by a specific date, making them a safer investment. Although the interest may change, it will never go below the rate that is specified when the securities are offered on the stock market. 
  2. Mutual Funds- The mutual fund consists of stocks, bonds, and other assets, which are traded in the financial market. The risk is far lower than stock trading since it requires several participants to make investments in various stocks. 

Types of financial markets 

The following are the various types of financial markets in an economy- 

  1. Stock Market- Shares of various companies public as well as private are traded here.
  2. Bond Market-Investors buy bonds from an organisation in the bond market, and the company pays back the principal and interest on the bonds over a stipulated period.
  3. Derivatives Market- In such a market, derivatives or contracts are traded, the value of which is determined by the market forces. 
  4. Cryptocurrency Market- Blockchain technology is used for transactions. Digital currencies are traded on an international scale.
  5. Foreign Exchange Market-  This market aids in carrying out currency transactions and is used to establish exchange rates for all currencies.

Importance of financial markets

The following is the benefit of having a strong financial market in an economy -

  1. Productive use of savings- Financial market helps in the mobilisation of savings. They use the available savings for various productive purposes like home loans, student loans, etc providing easy access to capital for various entities.  It contributes to the capital and economic growth of the nation. 
  2. Stock Valuation- Pricing various stocks and securities is another crucial task in financial markets. Demand and supply in the financial markets, as well as the interactions between investors and other shareholders, essentially set these prices.
  3. Asset Liquidity- Liquidity is necessary for tradable assets' efficient operation and flow. Financial markets not only make it simple for investors to sell their securities and other investments, but they also make it simple to turn those assets into cash.
  4. Altering the transaction costs- Financial markets allow for the free acquisition of a variety of information on securities. There is hardly any additional fee required for buying and selling financial instruments which adds to the benefit. 

Entities Involved

This system draws money from investors and routes it to businesses, enabling businesses to finance their operations and experience growth. The two sides of the entire process are-


Name Function
Individuals They lend money by investing in government bonds, saving money in bank accounts, or paying premiums for insurance. 
Companies When they have excess income that won't be needed for a short while may try to make money by lending it through money markets, which are platforms for lending short-term funds. 
Banks They lend out the money already deposited with them to create more of it. 


Name Function
Individuals They take loans for short-term and long-term financing. 
Firms They take loans to expand their firm eventually.
Government They usually borrow to meet the fiscal deficit of the nation or finance some public projects. 

Fintech reshaping the future of financial markets

The future of finance is being redefined by fintech, which is the use of digitalisation in financial services. The growing digitalization fosters economic growth by generating more efficient and inclusive financial services. Due to artificial intelligence in fintech, the boundaries between financial entities and the financial sector are becoming increasingly blurred.

It has the following implications on the financial markets-

  • Promote healthy competition and innovation while minimising risks.
  • Examine regulatory, monitoring, and supervisory frameworks to make that they are still appropriate for the job and help the government promote a secure, effective, and inclusive financial sector.
  • To promote competition in the financial industry, anticipate market trends, and proactively influence them.
  • As private investment solutions evolve quickly, make sure that public money is still suited for the digital age.


Financial markets are the base of an economy and fintech is the new-age definition of that. It looks forward to creating new opportunities for various identities to prosper in their businesses. 

If you are looking to learn fintech and related financial services, check out the new MBA in Fintech training programme offered by Imarticus Learning in collaboration with KL University.  

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