MongoDB vs. MySQL in Web Development

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Having robust databases is one of the major characteristics entailing DevOps development. Whether conducting online transactions or streaming your favourite movie, robust databases have made us all dependent on them. 

Database management systems are now making our lives easier. Database management is now the pinnacle of backend development. This has made the jobs of full stack developers easier and has also encouraged technological dependency. 

However, developers are often torn in the decision-making process of which database to use for backend development. Be it MongoDB or MySQL, the debate has been continuing for decades. 

In this article, let's do a comparative background check on MongoDB and MySQL; which is better, which provides a much more agile database and many other important details. 

What are MongoDB and MySQL? 

MongoDB is a popular open-source database that is a compound of MySQL and other robust databases. It creates and stores documents in a binary JSON file or a Javascript Object Notion. MongoDB can seamlessly transfer data between servers to different web applications at ease. Using MongoDB is the correct choice when the user requires robust storage capacity with speed. 

MySQL on the other hand is an open-source database with RDBMS characteristics. Built by Oracle Corporation, the database focuses on storage in a tabular format. The database is compatible with different kinds of operating systems like Linux, Windows, Apple, FreeBSD and Unix. 

MongoDB and MySQL: Similarities and Differences 

Both being open source databases, MongoDB and MySQL there are certain similarities as well as differences between the two. Let's find them out to improve backend development. 


As mentioned above, being open-source databases, both are remotely similar to one another. They are: 

  • Both are database management systems or DBMs. 
  • Both save data on a computer system or network laying the foundation for different web applications. 
  • Both databases support Python, Java, Node.js and Server-side PHP. 
  • Both MongoDB and MySQL enable organisations to modify, deploy, and distribute different cloud-based applications. 
  • For both databases, the code is free to use for anyone and easy to distribute as well. 


Despite all the similarities MongoDB and MySQL possess, there are several differences between both databases. They are: 

  • MongoDB is a document-based, non-relational database management. On the other hand, MySQL is a table-based system with an open-source relational database. 
  • MongoDB is made to supplant MySQL for seamless working. MySQL on the other hand is itself searchable and accessible with other data sets. 
  • MySQL has a rigid architecture which suffices business entities adequately. MongoDB, on the other hand, does not have a rigid architecture and can be used for individual user interfaces and commercial purposes. 

MongoDB and MySQL: One-on-one Comparison 

MongoDB and MySQL are the most robust open-source databases that have made lives easier for decades. However, an underlying difference between both lies. People often fall into a dilemma about the correct decision. Here is a one-on-one comparison between the two. 

Feature MongoDB  MySQL 
Data Structure  Stored in unrelated JSON documents.  Stores individual records in forms of credit in a tabular format. 
Schema  The database does not require any prior schema.  Requires a schema definition for the database to organise in a tabular format. 
Languages  Supports a JSON Query language for seamless database management.  Only uses Structured Query Language or SQL. 
Foreign Key  MongoDB is not accustomed to the usage of foreign keys, hence it is not supported.  Is a much more flexible open-source database supporting foreign keys. 
Replication  Facilitates sharding as well as replication.  Supports only master-slave replication and master replication. 
Scalability  Scaled both vertically as well as horizontally.  Scaled only vertically. 
Joint Operations  MongoDB is not well-versed in joint operations.  MySQL is very flexible and supports joint operations. 
Performances  MongoDB is only optimised for written performances.  MySQL is flexible and hence can be optimised for high performances across multiple tables. 
Risks  Due to the absence of schema, there are no chances for severe attacks.  Prone to different kinds of SQL injection attacks. 
Community Support  There are more than 177,000  repositories and 923,000 committed on GitHub for MongoDB. These numbers are subject to increase from time to time.  There are almost more than 222,000 repositories with around 7 million commits on GitHub for supporting MySQL. These numbers are substantially increasing day by day. 

When to use MongoDB and MySQL? 

MongoDB and MySQL are both one of the best open-source database management systems as per industrial standards. However, both of these are used for commercial purposes and both are real winners in the business field. However, the choices we make among these two would solely depend upon our project needs and goals. Let's see those. 

When to use MySQL?

MySQL is a very flexible open-source database management system that can enhance business growth.  They are: 

  • If one is starting a business, MySQL is a great tool since the database is non-scalable. 
  • If the database structure is rigid and not prone to change, MySQL is the ultimate choice. This is because MySQL has a fixed schema. 
  • If someone has a high transaction rate either individually or commercially, MySQL would be a fit choice. 
  • If data security is one of the top priorities, MySQL comes in handy in such situations. 
  • If one is looking for better database support other than MongoDB, MySQL can help one out with its flexibility. 
  • If one is working with legacy applications requiring multi-row transactions and has a clear and structured schema, MySQL is the optimal choice. 
  • If one is looking for finding solutions to common problems, MySQL can be termed as a viable option. 

When to use MongoDB? 

Despite its rigid data structure, MongoDB is also a viable option in certain cases. How? Let's find out. 

  • If one is looking for high data availability with automation and instant data recovery, MongoDB is the optimal choice. 
  • If one is working with an unstable schema and looking for ways to lower the cost of schema migration, MongoDB is the correct choice. 
  • If one's services are cloud-based, MongoDB would be very feasible in that case. 
  • If one wants to speed up their business development, MongoDB seems like a viable option. 
  • While working with real-time analytics, IoT and mobile applications, MongoDB would be a great choice to segregate structured and unstructured data that has rapid growth potential. 


For being a full stack developer, one has to keep in mind the credibility of both MongoDB and MySQL. Making a viable option for DevOps development is an elementary skill in being a backend developer or a full stack developer. 

If you are looking for a feasible programme for learning backend development, check out Imarticus Learning's Full Stack Developer Pro Course. You can get guaranteed job opportunities through robust real-world solutions. You can learn special skills in end-to-end development, data structuring, Java programming and other important features. 

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