Financial Management: Capital Structure and Working Capital Management

ACCA Course or training Program

Time is money, and financial management can make all the difference for a business. By implementing proper capital structure and working capital management, they can mitigate risks associated with long-term investments, optimise liquidity, and capitalise on growth opportunities through targeted strategies.

Technology has made financial data processing faster and decision-making more efficient. Accountants today must know how to efficiently use the capital structure for smooth operations and ongoing success. Taking an ACCA course is ideal for gaining the knowledge and skills to make informed decisions about capital structure and working capital management.

In this blog, we will discuss what exactly capital structure is; why it’s essential for a company or corporation; how it links up with the other aspects of its overall finance operation; and why you should opt for a comprehensive ACCA training program in order to manage the finances well and be profitable over time. 

Understanding Capital Structure - Definition and Type

A company's capital structure refers to the way it finances its operations and growth through a combination of debt and equity. Equity capital represents individual ownership shares in the company and the rights to its future cash flows and profits. And, Debt can be in the form of bonds or loans, while equity can be preferred stock, common stock, or retained earnings. Additionally, the capital structure also includes short-term debt.

Different companies in various industries choose different ways to finance their operations based on their specific business type. Industries like auto manufacturing that require significant capital investments often rely more on borrowing money. On the other hand, labor-intensive or service-oriented companies like software firms may prefer to raise capital by selling ownership shares.

Why is Capital Structure Essential?

If a company has a lot of debt, it can be seen as a risky investment. On the other hand, if it has too much equity, it means it's not taking advantage of opportunities to grow or it's paying more than necessary for funding (as equity is more expensive than debt).

But, there is no specific formula that tells us the perfect amount of debt or equity a company should have. The right balance depends on things like the industry the company is in and how established it is. It can also change over time because of things like interest rates and rules and regulations.

How is Capital Structure Evaluated?

A company's capital structure is measured using the Debt-to-Equity Ratio (D/E). It measures the relative proportion of the equity and debt used to finance the company's assets. 

The formula for the D/E ratio is as follows:

Debt-to-Equity Ratio (D/E) = Total Debt / Total Shareholders' Equity


This ratio provides insights into the company's leverage and the degree of financial risk it may face. A higher ratio indicates a company is more heavily financed by debt, which could entail higher risk, while a lower ratio suggests the opposite. However, a 'healthy' D/E ratio may vary widely across different industries.

What is Working Capital Management?

Working capital management for businesses ensures enough cash flow to cover short-term operating costs and debt obligations. A company's working capital is determined by subtracting the current liabilities from current assets.

Current assets refer to assets that can be easily converted into cash within a year. They include accounts receivable, cash, inventory, and short-term investments. On the other hand, current liabilities are comprised of obligations that are due within the next 12 months, such as operating expenses and short-term debt payments.

Types of Working Capital

Working capital is the amount of resources a company needs to run its business smoothly. There are different types of working capital that are important for understanding a company's short-term needs.

  • Permanent Working Capital: This is the minimum amount of resources necessary for day-to-day operations without interruption.
  • Regular Working Capital: It is a part of permanent working capital and covers the most essential needs for day-to-day operations.
  • Reserve Working Capital: Companies may need additional working capital for emergencies or unpredictable events.
  • Fluctuating Working Capital: This considers the variable liabilities that the company has control over.
  • Gross Working Capital: It is the total value of a company's current assets without considering short-term liabilities.
  • Net Working Capital: This is the difference between current assets and current liabilities.

Why is Working Capital Important?

A company needs working capital to cover short-term expenses. If a company is waiting for payment but needs cash immediately, it can struggle to pay its bills on time. In these cases, the company has to borrow money or sell things to cover costs, leading to extra expenses and financial instability.

A company with strong working capital can easily pay short-term debts without depending on external sources of money. This gives them more flexibility in managing their cash flow and investments. It also acts as a safety net in case of unexpected expenses or economic downturns.

Working capital is also important for assessing a company's financial health. Having enough working capital shows that a company is effectively managing its assets and debts, leading to better profitability and overall financial performance. On the other hand, low or negative working capital may indicate issues like slow-paying customers or excessive inventory, which can affect a company's ability to make profits and grow in the long term.

Evaluating Working Capital

Working capital is measured in financial management as the difference between the current assets and current liabilities. It reflects the short-term financial health and operational efficiency of a company.

The formula for calculating working capital is:

Working Capital = Current Assets - Current Liabilities

A positive working capital means the company has enough assets to cover its short-term liabilities, while a negative value might signify potential financial trouble.

Understanding the Relationship Between Capital Structure and Working Capital Management

It's crucial for businesses to understand how capital structure and working capital management relate to each other. Capital structure refers to the combination of debt and equity that a company uses to fund its operations and growth.

On the other hand, working capital management involves handling short-term assets and liabilities to ensure that a company has enough cash flow to cover its everyday expenses and short-term debts.

Having a well-balanced capital structure provides the financial stability needed for efficient working capital management. At the same time, effective working capital management can help reduce the risks associated with debt in the capital structure.


The way a company raises money and manages its day-to-day finances is important for finding a balance between risk and making money. Accountants are key in this process. They help businesses decide how much debt and how much money from investors is the right amount. This helps keep costs low and makes sure the company is valued at its best.

Accountants also make sure the company has enough money for daily operations and keep track of things like how much product they have and how much money they are owed. Their expertise helps the company use money wisely, which means less risk and better financial health.

Are you someone looking forward to starting a career in this domain? If you want to become a certified accountant, consider taking the ACCA course and training.

At Imarticus Learning, you have a wonderful chance to pursue a career in this field. The ACCA course, offered in collaboration with the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants, UK, covers various topics such as accounting, auditing, taxation, management, finance, investment banking, corporate finance, forensic audit, and consulting.

Expand your skill set and contact Imarticus today!

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