Data Distribution in Statistics and Descriptive Statistics for Data Analysis

Data Distribution in Statistics and Descriptive Statistics for Data Analysis

Every business across the world has to analyse and organise the data they collect systematically so that every employee can understand it. This is done with the help of specific statistical tools. Statistics is the science that involves collecting, classifying, interpreting, and presenting numerical data findings. 

Data distribution can be defined as the process of collecting and gathering data, variables, or scores. Data distribution has been widely used in statistics. It helps organisations categorise and organise the data understandably. 

Descriptive statistics is used for summarising a given dataset, representing the entire population or a sample of the data population. If you want to build a career in data science, keep reading to understand the statistical implications of data analysis. 

What is data distribution in statistics?

The distribution of a statistical dataset can be defined as the spread of the data, showing all possible intervals or values of the data and how they occur. Data distribution methods help organise the raw data into graphical methods to provide helpful information. 

By examining the data distribution, you will understand the data's characteristics and patterns. This will help in making informed predictions and decisions. A few credible data analytics courses are available to help you understand data distribution in detail. 

Types of data distribution in statistics 

There are mainly two types of data distribution in statistics, which are as follows:

Discrete data distribution: 

This type of data distribution has finite possible values, especially countable elements. This type of distribution can be reported in tables; the respective values of random variables are countable. 

The different kinds of discrete distributions are as follows: 

  • Poisson distribution: This type of data distribution is used for measuring the likelihood of an event occurring within a given period when the rates are known. However, the exact timing can only be predicted somewhat. For example, the number of errors, defects, absentees, etc. 
  • Binomial distribution: This type describes the probability of a certain number of successes (or failures) within a given number of events or trials. It is used when there are only two possible outcomes for every trial. For example, heads or tails, success or failure, etc. 
  • Hypergeometric distribution: This type of data distribution represents the likelihood of a certain number of successes (or failures) within a number given if drawn from a population when they are drawn without replacement. For example, the data has different items or variables, such as other coloured balls. 
  • Geometric distribution: This type of data distribution defines the likelihood of success on a given trial in a series of trials when the success probability for every trial is known. For example, modelling the failures before success, such as manufacturing. 

Data analytics courses will help you understand the type of curve you must use for the dataset available.  

B. Continuous data: 

This type of data distribution has infinite data points displayed on a continuous measurement scale. A random variable having a set of possible values that are uncountable and infinite is the continuous random variable. It is used for measuring something instead of just counting. 

  • Normal distribution: One of the most commonly used data distributions, it measures the data points using a bell curve. It is used for predicting future outcomes according to past trends. 
  • F distribution: This type of data distribution measures the data points spread out over a broader range than normal distributions. It is often used for measuring data having higher variability. 
  • Lognormal distribution: It measures data points on a curve shaped like a sigmoid function - a curved line starting at zero and increasing sharply to the peak and finally decreasing. 
  • Exponential distribution: This type of data distribution is used for measuring data points having an exponential curve - beginning at zero and gradually increasing in value. A data analyst course will help you understand the formation and shape of the curve. It is used for data that is expected to increase with time, such as a city's population. 
  • Chi-square distribution: It is used for measuring the difference between the expected results and the observed data. It can identify the significant differences between the two given datasets and help understand the factors that might influence the results.
  • Weibull distribution: It measures data using an exponential curve and is often used for reliability tests, which helps predict a system's lifespan. 
  • T-student distribution: This type of data distribution measures the data points that have been spread out. It can be used for datasets having high variability and outliers, like performance data. 
  • Non-normal distribution: A common prediction is that the data is a sample from a normal distribution when performing a hypothesis test. However, that is only sometimes the scenario. Data might not follow a normal distribution. Therefore, nonparametric tests are used when there are no assumptions of a particular distribution for the population. 

What is descriptive statistics?

It refers to the branch of statistics involving the process of summarising, organising and presenting data meaningfully and concisely. Its goal is to describe and analyse the main characteristics of a dataset without any inferences or generalisations to a larger population. 

It helps analysts understand and gain insight about the dataset's patterns, distributions and trends. Researchers can effectively summarise and communicate the critical features of a dataset by using this statistical approach. 

Types of descriptive statistics used in data analysis 

There are different types of descriptive statistics, which have been listed below: 

  • Central tendency: It focuses on the middle values or averages of datasets. Measures of central tendency are used for describing the centre position of a data distribution. The frequency of each data point in the distribution is analysed and explained with mean, median or mode - analysing the common patterns of the datasets. 
  • Measure of variability: It helps analyse how dispersed the distribution is for a given dataset. For instance, when the measures of central tendency might give a person the dataset's average, it doesn't specify how the data is distributed.
  • Distribution: Also referred to as frequency distribution, it relates to the number of times a data point occurs. It is also the measurement of a data point not happening. Let us consider a dataset: male, male, male, female, female, other, other. This distribution can be classified as: 
  1. The number of males in the dataset - 3 
  2. The number of females in the dataset - 2
  3. The number of people identifying as other - 2
  4. The number of non-females - 5

To build a career in data science, you must understand the different types of descriptive statistics used for data analysis


Data analysis helps organisations all over the globe acquire accurate information needed for the future development of business plans and marketing strategies. 

Data distribution helps gain valuable insight into the various aspects of business like marketing performance, customer trends and financial forecasting. Descriptive statistics is the analysis, summary and communication of findings that describe a dataset. It helps in explaining high-level summaries of a set of information. 

If you are searching for a credible data science course, check out the Postgraduate Program In Data Science And Analytics course by Imarticus. This six-month programme will help you learn about the real-world applications of data science. It will prepare you to work as a data science professional under the guidance of some industry experts. 

Enrol with Imarticus today!

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