What Are Malware, Ransomware and Spyware?

Securing and Defending Digital Infrastructure: Essentials Concepts of Cybersecurity

Malware, Ransomware and Spyware are malicious programs(code or viruses) that invade your device for illegal access. Their main purpose is to either extract data the attacker desires or corrupt the files making them inaccessible. All three viruses interfere with the device's information security and can block any outside user from ever accessing it again. 


Malware is a short abbreviation for ‘Malicious Software’ which is a virus planted on one's device to steal sensitive information. Any program on a device that harms its performance, network or servers is Malware. 

Malware is typically spread through various means, such as email attachments, infected websites, or compromised software. Once installed on a computer or network, Malware can perform a variety of harmful actions, such as stealing sensitive data, disrupting operations, and hijacking resources for malicious purposes.


Ransomware is a virus designed to deny access to a computer system or data until a ransom is paid by the victim. Ransomware works by encrypting the victim's files or locking their computer, effectively rendering them inaccessible. 

The victim is typically notified of the ransom and given a deadline to pay it, usually in the form of a digital currency such as Bitcoin, in exchange for the decryption key that will unlock their files. In some cases, the attacker may threaten to delete or publish the victim's data if the ransom is not paid. It's a basic hijackers tool, a virus that blocks the files on a device until the ransom is paid. 

Cybercriminals block your access to your files and won't let go unless you pay the desired sum. Until the desired sum is paid, the files are held hostage.


Spyware is a type of Malware that is designed to monitor a user's computer activity and collect personal information without their knowledge or consent. Spyware can be installed on a computer through a variety of means, such as through infected software downloads, malicious email attachments, or vulnerabilities in the computer's operating system.

Once installed, spyware can monitor a user's web browsing activity, log keystrokes, record passwords, and even capture screenshots of the user's desktop. The collected data is then sent back to the attacker, who can use it for various malicious purposes such as identity theft, financial fraud, or targeted advertising.

Precautions Against Malicious Attacks and Malware

  • To protect against Malware, it's important to use antivirus and anti-malware software. Keep software and operating systems up to date, be cautious when opening email attachments or clicking on links, and avoid downloading software or files from untrusted sources. Regular backups of important data can also help mitigate the damage caused by a Malware attack.

  • To protect yourself against Ransomware attacks, it is important to take several precautions. Keep your software up to date, use reputable antivirus software, and regularly back up your data. Be cautious when opening emails from unknown senders and use strong, unique passwords for all of your accounts. 

Educate yourself and your staff on how to identify and avoid ransomware attacks, including safe email practices and how to recognise phishing scams. By taking these steps, you can help to reduce the risk of a ransomware attack and protect your data and systems from harm.

  • Spyware can be difficult to detect and remove, as it is designed to operate covertly and avoid detection by antivirus software. It is important to take steps to protect against spyware, such as using reputable antivirus and anti-spyware software. Be cautious when downloading software or clicking on links, and regularly scan for possible threats and remove any detected threats.

Problems Caused by Malware, Ransomware and Spyware

Malware, Ransomware and Spyware are malicious software that are specifically designed to cause harm to computer systems, networks, and devices. Let us discuss the potential problems caused by these types of software.

Problems caused by Malware:

  • Can slow down or crash computer systems and networks
  • Can allow unauthorised access to systems and networks
  • Can steal personal and sensitive information such as passwords and financial information

Problems caused by Ransomware:

  • Can encrypt important files and demand payment for their release
  • Can cause financial losses for individuals and organisations
  • Can disrupt business operations and result in lost productivity

Problems caused by Spyware:

  • Can be used to steal identities and commit financial fraud
  • Can be difficult to detect and remove, and may require professional assistance
  • Can compromise the privacy and security of individuals and organisations

Cyber Security as a Future Resolve

Cyber Security is becoming an increasingly important area of focus for individuals, organisations, and governments alike. As we rely more and more on technology to conduct our daily lives, the risks associated with cyber-attacks are also increasing. Therefore, Cyber Security is seen as a future resolution to address these risks and protect against cyber threats.

As technology continues to advance, the importance of Cyber Security will only continue to grow. By investing in Cyber Security measures and promoting cyber awareness, you can help to protect against cyber threats and ensure a secure and trustworthy digital future.

At the moment the IIT Cyber Security course is the most in-demand option for students. A career in Cyber Security through Imarticus will open the doors of success for you.


In conclusion, Malware, Ransomware, and Spyware are malicious and pose significant threats to computer systems, networks, and devices. Overcoming these viruses require skills in Cyber Security and these skills are offered at Imarticus.

Imarticus offers the IIT Cyber Security course which can help you acquire the knowledge to deal with these kinds of cyberattacks easily. This course of 6 months will educate you enough to stand your ground against any cyberattack and protect your organisation’s devices and networks with ease. To know more about this course, check out Imarticus.

Share This Post

Subscribe To Our Newsletter

Get updates and learn from the best

More To Explore

Our Programs

Do You Want To Boost Your Career?

drop us a message and keep in touch