What is the meaning of financial statement analysis and explain its methods?

Financial Analyst Course

Financial statement analysis examines a company's financial statements to understand its performance. Understanding a company's financial health requires using a technique like financial statement analysis. In essence, it is examining the financial documents of a firm and determining what they reveal about its operations and prospects for the future. 

This is looking at the figures and connections between earnings, assets, and liabilities to understand how the business is doing and how well it could do in the future. We can decide whether or not to invest in a firm more effectively by conducting this examination.

These records can help evaluate the company's past, present, and future performance. Understanding financial statement analysis can help you assess a company's financial health and make informed investment decisions. Keep reading to know more! 

What is financial statement analysis?

The financial report analysis reviews and interprets a company's financial statements to gain insights.

This analysis uses three critical financial statements: 

  • Income statements: Gross profit margin, operating profit margin, net profit margin, tax ratio effectiveness, and interest coverage 
  • Balance sheets: Receivables turnover, quick ratio, debt to assets, days to sales, and debt to equity
  • Cash flow statements: This is the amount of money available and profits before taxes, interest, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA). These figures might be shown on a per-share basis.

What are the objectives of financial statement analysis?

It helps investors and creditors evaluate a company's financial health and make informed investment or lending decisions. 

Financial analyst

Financial statement analysis helps company management to identify areas of strength and weakness within their operations. 

Financial statement analysis is essential for regulatory authorities and tax agencies to ensure compliance with laws and regulations.

A financial statement evaluation provides information about a company's economic performance. This information can help people make better decisions about lending money to the company. It helps identify the risks and opportunities associated with working with the company.

Benefits of financial statement analysis

  • Financial statement analysis is essential for investors, creditors, and management to understand a company's financial health. 
  • It has many benefits and can help these stakeholders make informed decisions.
  • Corporate financial analysis lets stakeholders gain insight into a company's financial performance. 
  • Assessment of accounting statements can be helpful for people interested in a company's performance. 
  • It can help them spot patterns, unusual things, and places where they should pay attention. 
  • For instance, if a company's profits keep decreasing, it could mean that its expenses are increasing or its prices are being pressured.

How to analyze financial statements effectively?

To understand a company's financial situation, you should get its financial statements. But before you start analyzing them, it's essential to check that the reports are accurate and have all the necessary information.

After verifying the statements, you can start calculating ratios and metrics to evaluate the company's financial performance. These ratios can help you understand how well the company makes profits, manages its resources, and meets its financial responsibilities.

What are the different methods of financial statement analysis? 

Financial statement analysis helps assess a company's financial health and performance by looking at its financial statements. There are various methods to determine the performance and efficiency of a company.

  • Ratio Analysis: Ratio analysis in finance is a way to evaluate a company's financial health. These ratios can include profitability, liquidity, and solvency ratios.
  • Common-Size Analysis: Common-size analysis involves converting financial statements into a standardized format. Therefore, it allows for easy comparison between companies over time. Each line item is a percentage of a common base, such as total assets or revenue.
  • Vertical Analysis: Vertical analysis analyses a company's financial statements by looking at the percentage of each line item at a specific point, such as revenue or total assets.
  • Horizontal Analysis: Horizontal analysis involves comparing financial statements from different periods to identify trends and changes in a company's economic performance.
  • DuPont Analysis: DuPont analysis breaks down a company's return on equity (ROE) into three components. It includes net profit margin, asset turnover, and financial leverage.
  • Cash Flow Analysis: It involves analyzing a company's cash flows to evaluate its ability to generate cash and meet its obligations.


Examination of Financial documents helps to evaluate a company's financial health. Therefore it is crucial for making smart investments and business decisions. Different ways to study financial statements show a unique company performance perspective. To fully understand a company's finances, combining these methods is essential.

Imarticus Learning provides the best financial analysis courses.  In partnership with KPMG in India, the Financial Analysis Prodegree was created. This 120-hour program develops competence across various fundamental financial activities. This course also gives participants the professional knowledge they need to change or restart their careers.

Share This Post

Subscribe To Our Newsletter

Get updates and learn from the best

More To Explore

Our Programs

Do You Want To Boost Your Career?

drop us a message and keep in touch