Explore Job Characteristics Model to be an Efficient HR Manager

Job Characteristics Model to be an Efficient HR Manager

For any business to be successful, employee productivity plays a vital role. And, the job characteristics model (JCM) can be used to improve the productivity of employees and enhance job satisfaction. If you work or want to pursue a career in human resources or management fields, then read ahead to learn more about the job characteristics model

About Job Characteristics Model

The job characteristics model is a psychological theory that talks about the effect of core job characteristics on job outcomes, individual performance and personal satisfaction. In the late 19th century, the model was developed and presented by Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham in their book "Work Redesign." Notably, JCM proposes that employees feel motivated if they find their job challenging and exciting.

Further, the job characteristics model highlights five core job dimensions, including:

  • Skill variety: It refers to the range of unique skills an employee can use to complete different tasks. This encourages an employee to acquire new abilities and participate in diverse experiences.
  • Task identity: It involves an employee completing the entire task from start to finish. It makes the job meaningful when the employee witnesses the results of his/her work. 
  • Task significance: It refers to the sense of meaning attached to a task. Employees draw meaning from tasks having a tangible effect on the well-being of their colleagues and/or clients. 
  • Autonomy: It means the freedom given to work independently. This can bring in a sense of personal meaning and promote a higher quality of work. 
  • Feedback: It refers to the importance of feedback to employees from employers. Constructive feedback helps employees not only build their confidence, but also become better at work.

These dimensions can influence key psychological states (experienced meaningfulness of the work, experienced responsibility for the outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results) and the quality of work to bring desirable outcomes. 

For example, a graphic designer is able to deliver various tasks (like webpage, logo and promotional material design) at hand owing to the skill variety he/she possesses. This keeps the job interesting and engaging for him/her.

Advantages of Job Characteristics Model

A workplace can be enriched in many ways by making use of the job characteristics model. Here are the benefits of applying JCM:

  • Jobs become engaging for employees and they feel more connected with their job.
  • It is significant to boost employee morale because it can lead to a better workplace culture and increased employee retention.
  • With optimised professional efficiency, motivated employees perform at a higher level.
  • Employees finding personal meaning in their jobs are more likely to produce the quality of work. 

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Applying Job Characteristics Model

Let us discuss some steps that can help you apply the job characteristics model at your workplace:

  • Effectively delegate tasks: Assigning work to employees who have less experience can not only build their skills, but also bring a greater sense of personal responsibility for their job. 
  • Vary a job’s tasks: This allows employees to complete different tasks involving a broad skill set. Also, this makes work more interesting and fulfilling for employees.
  • Plan teamwork: Assigning teamwork helps employees complete tasks from start to finish and witness tangible outcomes. 
  • Evaluate performance: Giving consistent feedback to employees can help improve their performance. 
  • Job enrichment: Introducing a reward system or recognition programme helps motivate employees.
  • Rotate jobs: It is important to encourage employees to rotate jobs by creating a workplace structure. This helps them gain new experiences and exercise different skills.
  • Job redesign: Employee feedback and surveys must be considered to identify the weak points at work and fix them.

Function of JCM in Human Resource Management

The job characteristics model helps create empowering jobs to enhance employee motivation, improve performance, and increase job satisfaction. When it comes to human resources management, the model can be applied while shaping a job design, creating training and development programmes, aligning jobs with a higher motivating potential score and underlining weak areas through the performance appraisal systems. 


By and large, the job characteristics model is a critical instrument that helps HR professionals design jobs that meet organisational requirements along with employee needs. To be an effective and efficient HR professional, you can pursue a reputable course like Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee’s Professional Certificate in Human Resource Management and Analytics. If you have any queries, then you can reach out to Imarticus Learning. 

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