Define linear regression and its role in machine learning

Data Science Course

Statistical analysis has played an important role in data interpretation and analysis for several decades now. However, with the emergence of technological solutions like machine learning, it has become possible for businesses to process a large amount of data and establish a relation between various variables.

Linear regression is one method of statistical analysis typically used as part of machine learning analysis in cases where establishing a definite relationship is important between two or more variables.

Here is all you need to know about Linear Regression and the role it plays in machine learning:

What is Linear Regression in Machine Learning?

Linear regression is a statistical technique used to model the relationship between a variable that is dependent (also known as the output or target variable) and independent variables that can be one or more (also known as predictors, inputs, or features). It is mainly used for various outputs like predictive analysis, and is useful in supervised machine learning. It helps to predict the result of an event based on independent variable points.

The goal is to find the line of best fit (referred to as the "regression line") that describes the cause and effect between variables. The line of best fit is represented by a linear equation in the form of y = mx + b, where y is the dependent variable, x is the independent variable, m is the slope of the line (representing the effect of x on y), and b is the y-intercept (representing the value of y when x = 0).

What is the role of Linear Regression in Machine Learning?

In machine learning, linear regression is a supervised learning algorithm that can be used for both regression and classification problems. It is simple, easy to implement and understand, and works well when the relationship between the variables is linear.

Linear regression can predict a continuous variable (such as price, temperature, or weight) or classify a binary variable (such as pass/fail or yes/no). It can also be extended to multiple linear regression, where multiple independent variables are used to predict a single dependent variable.

Linear regression is widely used in many fields, including finance, economics, and engineering, to predict future values based on past data and to identify the strength of the relationship between variables.

In machine learning, linear regression is a simple algorithm and is easy to understand and interpret. Linear regression can be used as a base model and also used as a benchmark to compare other more complex models.

What are the various types of Linear Regression?

Linear Regression can be divided into two broad types. The types of Linear Regression are as follows:

Simple Linear Regression

Simple Linear Regression includes a simple straight line with a slope and intercept. A simplified form of simple linear regression can be explained as y = mx + c. In this case, y is the output, and x is the independent variable. When x = 0 c is the intercept. Following this equation, the machine learning model is trained by the algorithm and provides the most accurate output.

Multiple Linear Regression

In cases where the number of independent variables is more than one, the linear equation follows a different form. An example of multiple linear regression is y= c+m1x1+m2x2. In this case, mnxn is the coefficient that is responsible for the impact of different variables. The machine learning algorithm provides the values of coefficients m1, m2, etc., and provides the best-fitting line.

Benefits of Linear Regression

Linear Regression is a popular statistical method. The key benefits of linear regression are as follows:

Ease of implementation

It is one of the most easily implemented machine learning models. Furthermore, it does not require much engineering overhead to complete this.


Linear Regression is easily scalable. It can be applied to cases where scaling is required. It is mainly useful in the use of big data.


Linear Regression is easy to interpret and efficient to train. It is simple and requires less time for training.

Applicability in real-time

Linear regression can be used where real-time results are required. It is a system that can be retrained as per the requirements very easily.

IIT Roorkee Certificate Program in Machine Learning and Data Science

The IIT Roorkee Data Science And Machine Learning Course can help us cover Linear Regressions and other statistical methods that are used in machine learning. It is one of the best Certificate Program In Data Science And Machine Learning that has been built by iHUB DivyaSampark @IIT Roorkee and Imarticus Learning. The IIT Roorkee Machine Learning Certification can provide a strong foundation in data science and machine learning. It can also act as a strong bridge to achieve growth in our careers.

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