This could easily be asked as an interview question and one that seemingly causes a lot of confusion for aspirants in the Finance domain. To help you understand investment banking, it’s best to differentiate it from the type of banking that you have experience with: commercial or retail banking – the banks that you see on the street.
The banking sector is split into two fundamental divisions: Investment banking and retail banking.
Let’s understand what Investment banking is. Investment banks are huge financial institutions that assist their clients – mostly corporates and government agencies – in raising capital by underwriting and acting as the agent or an underwriter in the issuance of securities.
An investment bank assists these organizations with complex financial solutions such as Mergers and Acquisitions, Equity Underwriting, Private Placement, Valuation and Fairness Opinion, Corporate Restructuring, Structured Refinance, Management Buyouts, among others.
In a way, Investment Banks serve as a bridge between large corporations and investors.
Investment banking is split into front office, middle office, and back office activities. Think you want to be an investment banker? Chances are the role you are imagining is a front office role.
On the other hand, The bank where you maintain your current (UK), checking (USA) or savings account is a commercial or retail bank. You cannot go into an investment bank and deposit your money, get your ATM card, or ask for a student loan. This is what commercial or retail banks do. – The value of transactions that happen in a retail bank is very low in nature but the number of transactions are significantly higher than those of investment banks Some retail banks have an investment banking unit, others do not. For example SBI Bank is primarily a Retail Bank and has established a subsidiary company SBI Cap Securities, which carries on investment banking operations. Retail Banking encompasses a wide variety of products and services like Savings Accounts, Bank Guarantees, Certificate of Deposits, Mortgages, Personal Loans, Letter of credits, Foreign Exchange services for retails clients, Insurance business, Wealth Management Services, Personal Banking, Stock Brokerage Services, Locker Facilities etc. which are not provided by Investment Banks.
Some of the well-known Investment Banks include:
- J P Morgan and Chase
- Bank of America
- Wells Fargo
- Morgan Stanley
Some of the well-known Retail Banks include:
- HDFC Bank
- ICICI Bank
- Bank of Baroda
- SBI Bank
To sum up, here are the key differences between investment and retail banks:
Think investment banking is a career option for you? Interested in learning more? Join our CIBOP (Certified Investment Banking Operations Professional) program to learn about Investment Banking in more detail.
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Investment Banking prospects in India are very promising. Planning a shift in careers or a fresher, this is one stream worth considering. Specially, if you are an individual who finds the idea of making money from money exciting.
In simple words, investment banking is a profession where you match the expectations of people who have the capital with those who need it. Although it is not as simple as it sounds. As you will be advising people or institutions on money matters across various phases of a life cycle of a project, ranging from the start up stage to the listing of stock markets, you need to maintain the optimum valuation. It requires great understanding of the market so that you can offer the most optimum advice to your client, on options like mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures etc…,
Certain skill sets required to excel in this choice of work are, high research and an analytical mind-set, par excellence communication skills, an innovators mind set, troubleshooting capability, genuine ease of working and analysing numbers, forecast sales and budget, technical knowledge. A person from any steam can think of starting their career in investment banking, but it important to have a good understanding in math, economics, business studies. Although you can pursue an MBA, to have a specialised course will serve as a spring board to your efforts and help you secure a job in a reputed company, or help you get that promotion you are waiting for since long.
There are very limited options you have in terms of getting a holistic training on investment banking, however one that has proven to be closest to giving you the best exposure and highly recognised in the industry is, the Certified Investment Banking Operations Professionals (CIBOP), it is a flexible program for both fresher’s and experienced professionals. And CIBOP can be considered as a pre prep for the CISI IOC certification program, it is highly regarded by investment houses globally and passing this certification echoes the thought that an individual does have a sound understanding of the financial services industry.
The CIBOP program offered by Imarticus, is a 180 hours’ program dedicated in understanding complex securities and derivatives, their trade life cycle, along with operational risk and regulation. CIBOP offers operations and domain training augmented with a personal development program. CIBOP has an industry relevant program, supplemented with industry stalwarts as faculty, and real case studies.
On completing the CIBOP course from Imarticus learning you will get an industry endorsed CIBOP certificate along with the optional CISI certified IOC certificate, besides this, Imarticus has career services and their placement team will guide and assist you throughout the program, providing the best career opportunities.
CIBOP is a hybrid program with online self-paced videos and live classes, along with classroom training. The CIBOP program also has a host of guest lectures, by experienced industry veterans, which presents abundant opportunities for students to raise questions and clarify doubts and get clear actual industry insights.
On completing CIBOP course you will have a sound understanding of every aspect of Investment banking along with practical aspects of the sector. So if you have an inclination towards this field and have some of the prerequisites in place, don’t wait and enrol with Imarticus Learning and take the CIBOP certification.
The finance and banking industry employs a wide range of professionals from brokers, including individual, business, and Investment financiers. While the parts and obligations of these brokers may vary, they all must administer the monetary needs of their customers. Individual brokers may work one-on-one with customers opening private company accounts and administering budgetary exchanges, for example, sending cash requests and dealing with stress.
Business investors prepare advances to planned business people, while venturing brokers, associate lenders with conceivable speculation openings. Additional time and travel are regularly required in these employments, particularly for venture brokers. By and large, financiers spend many work hours sitting at a work area. Payscale.com detailed a mean yearly pay of $35,226 for individual investors in January 2016.
Despite the fact that degrees in speculations and managing an account might be hard to discover, many projects have specialisations in these territories as a major aspect of different projects. Back, bookkeeping and business are the doubtless decisions, however, speculation firms and banks may likewise be satisfied to see degrees in financial matters, arithmetic or designing. Notwithstanding the program name, what employing boards truly need to see is that you’re great with numbers, and each of these degrees requests that of their graduates.
While in school, understudies ought to start sharpening the abilities they’ll be effective speculation brokers. Honing introductions, acquainting yourself with Microsoft PowerPoint and Excel, figuring out how to talk about numbers in a legitimate yet open way, and interfacing with a wide range of sorts, of individuals, are only a couple of the approaches to fabricate auxiliary aptitudes while likewise diving into coursework.
A banking entry level position might be a piece of a degree program or an open door an understudy seeks after amid the mid-year. Taking an interest in a temporary position gives imminent financiers involvement in the field and a comprehension of keeping money arrangements and controls. Furthermore, a temporary position may assist acquaint them with the obligations they’ll have once they start work. Entry level positions are likewise a route for people to start making associations in the exchange and systems administration for planned work openings.
Consider managing an accounted speciality. When investigating conceivable temporary positions, consider the distinctive sorts of investment banking and finance options as claims to fame. For instance, if you are inspired by venture banking, then apply for an entry level position with a speculation bank, which might be situated in a noteworthy metropolitan region.
Banks offer Investment Banking certification preparing programs that will plan people to find out about the procedures required in making ventures and working with customers. Those enlisted in the program are acquainted with business works with, saving money administrations, and customer relations. So as to start finding out about these practices, banks furnish people with contextual investigations, introductions, and displaying sessions.
So when you are looking to start a career in banking, it is always better to look up for certification training programs like these. Imarticus Learning offers a number of certification programs in finance and banking which would be of interest to you.
Every finance aspirant, at one point or another, envisioned themselves as one among the many professionals in crisp suits and black pencil skirts, walking along the hallowed hallways banks like Morgan Stanley. While some individuals choose the more tried and tested route to achieve this aspiration, like pursuing their MBA, there are many others who make use of new and innovative ways to achieve their ambition. These ways include pursuing of intensive professional training courses, which are becoming popular by the day. Courses offered by Imarticus Learning are gradually becoming the go-to courses, chosen by those especially who wish to become Investment Bankers.
One of the most exciting areas of work, in the field of Investment Banking, is working in the front office. This area is usually what most of the exciting Investment Banking movies revolve around and it’s here that the real game is played. The ‘front office’ is divided into Sales and Trading, Corporate Finance and Research. It may be seen that the recent times have been experiencing a great amount of technological change in these three sub-fields of Investment Banking. Artificial Intelligence and business process automation are two of the many analytics technologies, with the help of which these three fields are attempted to be deconstructed.
Let’s begin with Sales and Trading, roles in this sphere are popularly known as the alpha roles in Investment Banking. The professionals working on these positions were considered to be the leaders of the wolf pack and they were very capable of getting away with just about anything. This has changed as the ‘nerds’ have steadily begun to replace them. This shift is the result of technology specifically, computer engineers taking up the positions. Goldman Sachs reportedly had over 30% of computer engineers as their traders. Recently another big gun, JP Morgan hired their Global Head of Machine Learning from Microsoft. What is surprising about this recruitment, is that the professional has absolutely no background in finance whatsoever.
When it comes to Investment Banks, a huge chunk of their work is carried on by the Mergers and Acquisitions Departments and the IPOs. It is common knowledge that artificial intelligence has already begun to make its presence felt in the field of accounting. Similarly, Corporate Finance is not being left behind as there are a number of well-paid analysts, managing the sweaty work for their Managing Directors. The field of IPOs is also being transformed, much similarly to what the CFO of Goldman Sachs has to say. He says, “Goldman Sachs has already mapped 146 distinct steps taken in IPOs offering stock and most of them are begging to be automated”. It won’t be long before stock market is made up of all the secondary markets created by FinTech companies.
Anyone who is a finance aspirant would be expected to know the difference between ‘active funds’ and ‘passive funds’. The million dollar ideas of all of those Portfolio Managers who build active products come from paid research teams at various Investment Banks. In the recent times, this basic financial commentary is speedily automated. With technologies like the blockchain technology and banks teaming up with software companies, it seems that the entire banking sector is set to undergo an overhaul, courtesy of AI and Data Science.
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The chief regulatory body, which is supposed to deal with all the finance and banking related decisions, is the Government of India. In the recent times, this body seems to have taken a considerable amount of decisions in order to strengthen the Indian Banking Sector. Some of which are as follows.
In the month of July 2016, the Government of India reportedly allocated about 3.41 billion USD. This amounts to Rs 22,915 crore, was allocated in the form of capital infusion to 13 public sector banks. This move is believed to increase the economic growth of the country by improving the liquidity and lending operations of these public sector banks.
The Reserve Bank of India has already begun on its move to make all transactions, digital in nature and absolutely paper free. Following in the same vein the RBI has released the Vision 2018 document, which primarily aims at increasing the use of electronic payments, through all the divisions of the society. This move will not only increase the usage of digital channels but also boost the customer base for mobile banking.
All the commercial banks which are scheduled will now be allowed to grant non-fund based facilities including partial credit enhancement (PEC), to all customers including those that do not avail any fund based facility from any of the banks present in India.
The Union Budget, which was announced in the year 2016-17 had a provision towards interest subvention. This provision is basically made to help in reducing the burden of loan repayment by the farmers. On account of this, an amount of 15,000 crore INR is being granted by the government.
The Government of India is looking to set up an exclusive fund, which will be a part of the National Investment and Infrastructure Fund (NIIF). This fund will basically be set up for dealing with all the stressed assets of banks. This fund will be taking over all the assets, which although viable do not have any additional fresh equity from promoters to complete the projects.
Post the massive drive that was conducted by the government to open up a number of bank accounts, quite a large number of Indians were financially included in the banking sector. The Reserve Bank of India plans on coming out with guidelines, which will be dealing with the basic know-your-customer norms. These norms would be of the primary focus of protecting the consumers.
The government of India is well on a warpath, to provide insurance, pension and credit facilities to all of those citizens, who were excluded from enjoying the benefits offered by the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)
In a bid to provide relief to all the state level, electricity providing companies, the government has proposed to its lenders that, about 75% of their loans would soon be converted to state government bonds.
Thus with so many new and effective schemes falling into place, courtesy the government of India, things are looking quite positive for the banking sector. This is great news for those finance enthusiasts who opt for special training programs, offered by training institutes such as Imarticus Learning in the field of Finance and Investment Banking.
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Industry Report: Investments and Developments
This report analysis would be mainly dealing with all the key investments and developments in Indian banking sector.
Starting from the basic, central level, the RBL Bank Limited, a private sector bank in India, has reportedly raised about Rs. 330 crore as a result of their association with CDC Group Plc. This is a UK based financial development institution and will be helping the RBL bank, to strengthen their capital base, in order to meet their future needs.
The World Bank has reportedly signed an agreement with The State Bank of India, which is worth Rs. 4200 crore. This agreement basically deals with connecting all the solar rooftop projects in India, which are also known as GRPV, and will be receiving financing as a part of this agreement.
JP Morgan Chase, which is considered to be the largest bank in America, has been in talks of expanding their operations in India. They have gotten a head start on the same, with three new branches in, Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai which will be an addition to the current branch in Mumbai.
An investment management company, known as the Canada Pension Plan, has reportedly bought a large stake, which it bought away from a Japan based, banking corporation called Sumitro Mitsui. These said stakes were in Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd.
India’s very first small finance bank, began its operations by launching about ten branches in the state of Punjab. The Capital Small Finance Bank as it is officially known aims at increasing the number of its branches to about twenty nine, in the current financial year of 2016-17.
Taking a step towards making India, as cashless economy, an e-wallet company, Freecharge, has partnered with Yes Bank and Mastercard. This partnership is in order to launch a new concept of Freecharge Go. This would be a virtual card, with the help of which consumers can pay for goods and services, at online shops as well as offline retailers.
This year, the economy of India would be majorly targeting at being self-sufficient and in the lieu of the same, te government of Andhra Pradesh has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Exim Bank of India, in order to promote exports within this state.
Moody’s, a Global Rating Agency, seems to have upgraded its outlook towards the Indian Banking System. This move is to stabilize its negative based on the assessments of about five drivers, which include improvement in operating environment, stable asset risk and capital scenario.
Rockefeller Foundation, a non-profit organization based out of America, has backed a private Equity Investor known as Lok Capital. This investor has a plan of investing up to USD 15 million in a couple of proposed small finance banks in India, over the period of next year.
The RBI, has reportedly given in principal approval, to about 11 applications, which were in favour of establishing payment banks. These banks may accept deposits, but they are to refrain from extending any loans.
With the chances of the economy and the cash inflow looking bright, the banking and investment industry shows great promise for aspirants.
This article will be principally dealing with the basic understanding about the banking sector, specifically in India and all the aspects and components of the size of the market. According to the Reserve Bank of India, the banking sector in India is believed to be sufficiently capitalized and well regulated. Recent reports state that the financial and economic conditions in our country, are way better in comparison to the other countries, in the present times. This basically puts the Indian economy, which is considerably stable, against the other alarmingly unstable and equally dysfunctional economies, all over the globe. Studies conducted in various fields like Credit, market and liquidity risk conclude that the banks in India have shown a general tendency, of being resilient and have been able to withstand the global economic turmoil really well.
This may have been a result of the various innovative banking models, for instance, the payments and small finance banks, which have had a positive impact on the Indian banking industry in the recent times. In the financial year of 2015-2016, about 10 small finance banks and around 11 payment banks, have received the principle approval from the central bank. This is a part of the new measures put in place by the Reserve Bank of India, which show great signs of going a long way, in terms of helping in the restructuring of the domestic banking industry. Let’s talk facts and numbers now, in keeping with the same we need to focus on the numeric aspects of the banking units across the country.
Primarily, the Indian banking system is made up of around 26 public sector banks, 25 private sector banks, 43 foreign banks, 56 regional rural banks, 1589 urban cooperative banks and around 93550 rural cooperative banks, in addition to the existing cooperative credit institutions. 80% of the entire market, is supposedly controlled by the public sector banks, thereby evidently a very small share of the market is left in control of the private counterparts. While on the other hand, every bank out there has begun to encourage their customers, in order to manage all of their finances using mobiles phones.
While there have been a number of predictions and assumptions in terms of credit growth, especially with the current banking situation, as well as the Union Budget almost being right around the corner. There are various estimates made, among which the Standard and Poor, have gone on to make the estimates, that the credit growth in the Indian banking sector, is likely to improve to 11-13 per cent in this financial year, that is 2017. This is a great news in terms of growth and progress, from the past three years, when the second half of the year, 2014, showed less than 10 per cent credit growth. As the future prospects of the Indian banking sector seem extremely bright and by extension, so do the job prospects in terms of Corporate Finance, Investment Banking and so on. This is why many finance enthusiasts have begun to turn to professional training institutes like, Imarticus Learning, that help them achieve the perfect career roles.
There has been a lot of news in the media recently about how investment banking fees are at an all-time low and how those multi-million dollar bonuses are about to take a beating. But recently the Financial Times noted how boutique banks like Evercore and Moelis are doing well, and are attracting a great deal of interest. Firms like Centerview and Moelis have even broken into the top 20 fee earners. But what are boutiques? What is it like working for one and where can you possibly go?
What are boutiques?
Boutiques are independent investment banks that have often been created by senior investment bankers. Houlihan Lokey, the largest boutique in the world, was created by ex-banker Scott Adelson. They often play on the founder’s strength, industry vertical specialization or regional focus, and focus primarily on deal advisory – M&A, Capital raising both in the public and private markets, restructuring and corporate finance. Boutique banks call themselves independent and without conflict. Essentially this means because they focus only on advisory, there are no conflicts with regard to public trading. So they will never be in a position where they might be advising company A on sale while another department trades that stock.
They are often top heavy, filled with rainmakers and senior bankers and feature a flat organizational structure. What does that mean? That means as an analyst you are going to work very hard but also gain more exposure while you put in the hours. Analysts and associates are treated like resources, which are farmed out to deals. In a bulge bracket, it’s quite likely you will spend all your time creating pitches. In a boutique however, because of the flat structure, you might even be asked to come into meetings, be part of the execution and learn something.
An investment banking deal is made up of four parts- Origination, Execution (Marketing) and Execution (Negotiation) and Closing. A bulge bracket is often divided by Origination and Execution, which means you are either going to be making pitches or information memorandums. At a boutique, industry specialists often divide teams and so if you belong to one team, you will find yourself doing work across the deal process, which means you learn more. Pay is also a little different. Boutiques pay less at the entry level but your potential to earn gets higher closer to the top because bonuses become a large part of your pay structure. Close a deal and you earn a significant portion of the bonus pool, which is of course spread across a smaller base than at a bulge bracket. You might earn more at a bulge bracket but you will learn less.
How about career progression?
Since they are flat structures with fewer options in terms of departments, there’s much less bureaucracy and more transparency with regards to promotions. But because there are fewer departments and not that many levels, there’s not that far you can go. But that doesn’t matter. Associates and VP’s in boutiques can often be seen heading to bulge brackets if they don’t find proper career progression at their old firm. Because of their intensive deal experience, they are quickly absorbed into both Private Equity and Bulge Bracket investment banking teams both in the Equity Capital Market and Corporate Advisory.
What are India’s top boutique banks?
Avendus Capital, MAPE, Veda Corporate Advisors, O3 Capital, Spark Capital, Dinodia. You also have global boutiques like Lazard, Moelis and Co and Houghlin Lokey.
The Chartered Institute for Securities and Investments is considered to be the leading professional body, globally, for securities, investment, wealth and financial planning professionals. Founded in the year 1992 by the London Stock Exchange, today, it has taken up the role of a global community, spanning around 116 countries and boasting of about 40,000 members. It was conferred the title of ‘Chartered Institute of Securities and Investment’ in the year 2009 when it was granted a Royal Charter. Headquartered in London, this global professional body, has its offices spread over various countries, including Sri Lanka, India, Singapore, Dubai, and Dublin.
This professional body is known to offer close to 40,000 CISI qualifications every year in around 70 countries, to qualify for which candidates have to take the Computer Based Test in the various centers worldwide. Apart from this, it is also the chief examining body in the industry and thereby, offers a number of industry memberships and training to the qualifying candidates. Apart from offering qualifications, the CISI is also known to offer, the CPD scheme, also known as, Continuing Professional Development scheme, which is basically rewarded to the members of, every level of seniority, geographical location, as well as industry specialization. The institute is known to have certain charitable objectives, which are as follows;
“To promote, for the public benefit, the advancement and dissemination of knowledge in the field of securities and investments to develop high ethical standards for practitioners in securities and investments and to promote such standards in the UK and overseas to act as an authoritative body for the purpose of consultation and research in matters of education or public interest concerning investment in securities.”
Being a member of this prestigious organization, sends out a message to all your clients and colleagues, including the wider public, that you as a professional, are committed to professionalism, integrity, and excellence. Becoming a CISI endorsed member is the most beneficial in terms of networking for a professional. One can easily access the international network of 40,000 financial practitioners.
Apart from this, the CISI body organizes a number of formal mixers, like forums, events, and other social media activities, which involve and encourage their members to build an array of networks and connections, with similar professionals from across the country. Any professional who is affiliated by the designations of CISI can meet up and keep abreast with the current happenings in the financial markets, while at the same time can also discuss them, with the top level delegates from across the world at any given point. The CISI body also offers a number of training courses apart from its social events and conferences. In order to get an entry into this elite bunch of people, one has to acquire the much coveted CISI certification.
International Certification & Placement You will receive the industry endorsed Certified Investment Banking Operations Professional (CIBOP) certification and the optional CISI certified IOC (Investment Operations Certificate). The Imarticus Learning Career Services and Placements team provides you guidance and assistance throughout the program, giving you the best career opportunities in leading international firms.
A lot of graduates today, decide to pursue higher studies, so as to ensure that they are able to get into the career of their choice. This is the age where just having a generalized degree, does not seemingly cut it. This has given birth to a whole new aspect of specialization in the society, only those who have specific additional degrees, get the opportunity to kick start their career well. As specialization study, becomes the popular choice there are an array of courses to choose from. The same applies to the field of finance. Investment Banking has increasingly become a popular career choice and there are a number of esteemed institutions, Imarticus Learning, offer courses in various branches of finance and ensure that your career choice, is the best decision that you would make. We at Imarticus learning as an institute are instrumental in ensuring that candidates get a slight edge over the other qualified professionals in the field of Investment Banking.
Investment Banking is known to be a very prestigious, competitive field, where the number of qualified candidates, greatly exceeds the job openings. This is the reason why taking up a specialization course makes more sense, because that way you get trained according to the industry standards, thus ensuring that you get the perfect kind of start in this landscape. Once you have narrowed down on a career and begun your journey towards its, there are a lot of indicators that prove it as the best decision. First of these indicators, would be the fact that you actually possess the perfect combination of academic as well as industry skills. Imarticus Learning ensure, that you develop certain skills, to supplement your academic knowledge, which would serve you at various junctures in your career. Apart from having the right skill set, various other indicators like having the right kind of connections and contacts, being goal oriented, driven and extremely dedicated towards your work, willing to work a more than 100 hour week and closing high value deals, all of these ensure your entry into the very fabled world of investment banking.
This is one of those careers where if you posses the right kind of skills, nothing can stop you from being on top of your game, all the time. It is a field which not only pushes your limits, but also rewards you very generously. Especially when it comes to salary packages, Investment Banking professionals get the best signing bonuses, hikes and other monetary luxuries, as compared to their peers. Professionals here argue that it was their best decision, because their time literally is worth every single paisa that they earn. From working long hours, to having mind numbing deadlines, anything and everything seems fine here, mainly because of the sterling rewards that an Investment Banker receives. It is common knowledge that Investment Bankers, usually make much more than their peers and also receive greater recognition for their hard-work. While some of the professionals here are pure geniuses, others are able to achieve the same through perseverance and the help of esteemed, Imarticus Learning, help ensure they are thoroughly ready to achieve their dreams.