This could easily be asked as an interview question and one that seemingly causes a lot of confusion for aspirants in the Finance domain. To help you understand investment banking, it’s best to differentiate it from the type of banking that you have experience with: commercial or retail banking – the banks that you see on the street.
The banking sector is split into two fundamental divisions: Investment banking and retail banking.
Let’s understand what Investment banking is. Investment banks are huge financial institutions that assist their clients – mostly corporates and government agencies – in raising capital by underwriting and acting as the agent or an underwriter in the issuance of securities.
An investment bank assists these organizations with complex financial solutions such as Mergers and Acquisitions, Equity Underwriting, Private Placement, Valuation and Fairness Opinion, Corporate Restructuring, Structured Refinance, Management Buyouts, among others.
In a way, Investment Banks serve as a bridge between large corporations and investors.
Investment banking is split into front office, middle office, and back office activities. Think you want to be an investment banker? Chances are the role you are imagining is a front office role.
On the other hand, The bank where you maintain your current (UK), checking (USA) or savings account is a commercial or retail bank. You cannot go into an investment bank and deposit your money, get your ATM card, or ask for a student loan. This is what commercial or retail banks do. – The value of transactions that happen in a retail bank is very low in nature but the number of transactions are significantly higher than those of investment banks Some retail banks have an investment banking unit, others do not. For example SBI Bank is primarily a Retail Bank and has established a subsidiary company SBI Cap Securities, which carries on investment banking operations. Retail Banking encompasses a wide variety of products and services like Savings Accounts, Bank Guarantees, Certificate of Deposits, Mortgages, Personal Loans, Letter of credits, Foreign Exchange services for retails clients, Insurance business, Wealth Management Services, Personal Banking, Stock Brokerage Services, Locker Facilities etc. which are not provided by Investment Banks.
Some of the well-known Investment Banks include:
- J P Morgan and Chase
- Bank of America
- Wells Fargo
- Morgan Stanley
Some of the well-known Retail Banks include:
- HDFC Bank
- ICICI Bank
- Bank of Baroda
- SBI Bank
To sum up, here are the key differences between investment and retail banks:
Think investment banking is a career option for you? Interested in learning more? Join our CIBOP (Certified Investment Banking Operations Professional) program to learn about Investment Banking in more detail.
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With banking direction at a record-breaking high, quantity of establishments seems, by all accounts, to be at an untouched low, and still on the decay. Mergers and acquisitions are on the ascent, yet sanctions proceed on a descending winding, with states the nation over all observing comparative patterns.
So where has all the managing an account was gone and what is banking today? Merriam Webster characterizes banking or investment banking “as the matter of a bank or financier.” In substantial part, that business includes sending stores as an advance to borrowers; these assets having been acquired through a development of stores and capital.
It shows up as though purchases and organizations alike are looking to elective wellsprings of financing generally alluded to as FinTech; sources outside of customary banks, where endorsing necessities may be fairly more liberal, terms more adaptable and insurance all the more broadly characterized.
Today, that same industry part could now be all the more in exactly depicted as a “wellspring of assets,” which can, as a rule, be gotten to on the web. This makes the loaning exchange geology unbiased and speedier from application to endorsement to financing.
Consider the accompanying option loaning choices:
Peer-to-Peer (P2P): where an online stage matches moneylenders and borrowers in light of specific information which can be electronically assessed momentarily; loan specialist overhead expenses are commonly lower and financing costs focused in light of the credit nature of the borrower. “In the vicinity of 2014 and 2015, the estimation of worldwide P2P loaning was relied upon to ascend to an esteem seven times what it was in 2014 – from 9 billion to 64 billion U.S. dollars. By 2050 the esteem is relied upon to be near one trillion U.S. dollars.”
Crowdfunding: for the most part don’t require reimbursement and ordinarily get financing from an expansive number of little commitments from people who bolster a specific business’ procedure and potential effect. Crowdfunding can appear as a value venture whereby the speculators advantage from future income and capital development of an organization, a gifts/rewards display, a loaning model or a consolidated model. It is evaluated that there are more than 375 crowdfunding stages in the United States alone and well more than 500 around the world. A few sources have dollars raised at over $8 billion. Be that as it may, given the assortment of stages used to request supports, a correct sum can’t be resolved.
Figuring and Merchant Cash Advance: ordinarily, applies to less credit-commendable borrowers who get to financing in return for an expense and are reimbursed through the receipt of money on records of sales and future credit deals individually. A gauge for the overall volume is this space surpasses $3 trillion.
In spite of the fact that FinTech organizations keep on gaining energy using Big Data and innovation, conventional banks keep on holding by far most of the loaning piece of the overall industry. May 2017 measurements distributed by the Federal Reserve demonstrate add up to bank resources at $16,241.5 billion in the United States with $12,591.6 billion of that gathered in bank credit “i.e. loaning”. Still, as a rule, more stringent endorsing norms at customary banks have cut off access to certain new companies or battling organizations and therefore FinTech has ventured in to offer an option. A 2014 Fortune magazine article notes “… Startups in the monetary innovation field, or “fin-tech” as it’s normally called, are blasting, and huge foundations, for example, Bank of America, Citibank, and American Express are emptying cash into these agile new organizations to meet present day administrative, computerized and security challenges. Wander interest in worldwide FinTech tripled in the vicinity of 2008 and 2013 to $2.97 billion and is relied upon to reach $8 billion by 2018.”
While the field of Finance in terms of the industry has gone through various radicalizing changes, it has also resulted in great changes on the academics part of the industry. Today many top banks are seeking candidates who are thoroughly industry endorsed and have a formidable set of skills.
Investment Banking prospects in India are very promising. Planning a shift in careers or a fresher, this is one stream worth considering. Specially, if you are an individual who finds the idea of making money from money exciting.
In simple words, investment banking is a profession where you match the expectations of people who have the capital with those who need it. Although it is not as simple as it sounds. As you will be advising people or institutions on money matters across various phases of a life cycle of a project, ranging from the start up stage to the listing of stock markets, you need to maintain the optimum valuation. It requires great understanding of the market so that you can offer the most optimum advice to your client, on options like mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures etc…,
Certain skill sets required to excel in this choice of work are, high research and an analytical mind-set, par excellence communication skills, an innovators mind set, troubleshooting capability, genuine ease of working and analysing numbers, forecast sales and budget, technical knowledge. A person from any steam can think of starting their career in investment banking, but it important to have a good understanding in math, economics, business studies. Although you can pursue an MBA, to have a specialised course will serve as a spring board to your efforts and help you secure a job in a reputed company, or help you get that promotion you are waiting for since long.
There are very limited options you have in terms of getting a holistic training on investment banking, however one that has proven to be closest to giving you the best exposure and highly recognised in the industry is, the Certified Investment Banking Operations Professionals (CIBOP), it is a flexible program for both fresher’s and experienced professionals. And CIBOP can be considered as a pre prep for the CISI IOC certification program, it is highly regarded by investment houses globally and passing this certification echoes the thought that an individual does have a sound understanding of the financial services industry.
The CIBOP program offered by Imarticus, is a 180 hours’ program dedicated in understanding complex securities and derivatives, their trade life cycle, along with operational risk and regulation. CIBOP offers operations and domain training augmented with a personal development program. CIBOP has an industry relevant program, supplemented with industry stalwarts as faculty, and real case studies.
On completing the CIBOP course from Imarticus learning you will get an industry endorsed CIBOP certificate along with the optional CISI certified IOC certificate, besides this, Imarticus has career services and their placement team will guide and assist you throughout the program, providing the best career opportunities.
CIBOP is a hybrid program with online self-paced videos and live classes, along with classroom training. The CIBOP program also has a host of guest lectures, by experienced industry veterans, which presents abundant opportunities for students to raise questions and clarify doubts and get clear actual industry insights.
On completing CIBOP course you will have a sound understanding of every aspect of Investment banking along with practical aspects of the sector. So if you have an inclination towards this field and have some of the prerequisites in place, don’t wait and enrol with Imarticus Learning and take the CIBOP certification.
The finance and banking industry employs a wide range of professionals from brokers, including individual, business, and Investment financiers. While the parts and obligations of these brokers may vary, they all must administer the monetary needs of their customers. Individual brokers may work one-on-one with customers opening private company accounts and administering budgetary exchanges, for example, sending cash requests and dealing with stress.
Business investors prepare advances to planned business people, while venturing brokers, associate lenders with conceivable speculation openings. Additional time and travel are regularly required in these employments, particularly for venture brokers. By and large, financiers spend many work hours sitting at a work area. Payscale.com detailed a mean yearly pay of $35,226 for individual investors in January 2016.
Despite the fact that degrees in speculations and managing an account might be hard to discover, many projects have specialisations in these territories as a major aspect of different projects. Back, bookkeeping and business are the doubtless decisions, however, speculation firms and banks may likewise be satisfied to see degrees in financial matters, arithmetic or designing. Notwithstanding the program name, what employing boards truly need to see is that you’re great with numbers, and each of these degrees requests that of their graduates.
While in school, understudies ought to start sharpening the abilities they’ll be effective speculation brokers. Honing introductions, acquainting yourself with Microsoft PowerPoint and Excel, figuring out how to talk about numbers in a legitimate yet open way, and interfacing with a wide range of sorts, of individuals, are only a couple of the approaches to fabricate auxiliary aptitudes while likewise diving into coursework.
A banking entry level position might be a piece of a degree program or an open door an understudy seeks after amid the mid-year. Taking an interest in a temporary position gives imminent financiers involvement in the field and a comprehension of keeping money arrangements and controls. Furthermore, a temporary position may assist acquaint them with the obligations they’ll have once they start work. Entry level positions are likewise a route for people to start making associations in the exchange and systems administration for planned work openings.
Consider managing an accounted speciality. When investigating conceivable temporary positions, consider the distinctive sorts of investment banking and finance options as claims to fame. For instance, if you are inspired by venture banking, then apply for an entry level position with a speculation bank, which might be situated in a noteworthy metropolitan region.
Banks offer Investment Banking certification preparing programs that will plan people to find out about the procedures required in making ventures and working with customers. Those enlisted in the program are acquainted with business works with, saving money administrations, and customer relations. So as to start finding out about these practices, banks furnish people with contextual investigations, introductions, and displaying sessions.
So when you are looking to start a career in banking, it is always better to look up for certification training programs like these. Imarticus Learning offers a number of certification programs in finance and banking which would be of interest to you.
Investment banking is synonymous with big pay cheques and long working hours. As soon as you start your career in it, you will realise that you are being stretched in all directions, with no time for family or friends or personal tasks. Most veterans in investment banking express that they feel they are always short-changing something or someone throughout. It is always a race against time.
Having said that, the same veterans, to survive the mad rush, have come up with some coping mechanisms that help them balance their day, ensuring that they touch all spectrums of tasks, personal, professional etc…,
Listed below are some lifestyle hacks in personal and professional capacity, that will help you get joy, out of the most tasking regimes and demands, faced at a professional level by investment bankers.
- Get a solid support system, and outsource as many tasks as you can without guilt, for example, use laundry and iron services from professionals, rather than expecting your spouse or you to do it over weekends, or if you higher up the ladder, an assistant at work or a junior can be used for delegation of tasks.
- Do not intentionally drive around to work, it will only add to the frustration of daily tasks, use Uber, or hire a driver, given the traffic and road conditions, you will feel blessed with the extra time you get to concentrate on tasks before reaching work.
- Better still, stay closer to work, even if the rent is higher it will save you loads of time invested in travel.
- Invest in good housekeeping, you will have enough deadlines and last minute reports to work on, getting groceries and cleaning your house will always take a backseat. A good help at home will rejuvenate you to face the challenges of the days to come.
- Walk as much as you can, you will need the exercise with time if you have to visit a client, see if you can take the trains or metro, walk, let the fresh air clear your thoughts.
- If you insist on holding on to your car, break the routine, on some day’s drive, listen to music, choose non-traffic hours to get that fresh rush of adventure on the way to work, it will clear any jarred thoughts from the previous day.
- Keep in touch with friends from the same industry, someone who can understand your challenges and limitations.
- If possible, choose a partner who understands the demands of your work life, possibly someone who themselves don’t have very demanding schedules, or else matching up with each other will be a life long struggle.
- Find solitude with yourself, keep a reality check, know the demands of your job.
- Travel, even if it is in your hometown from time to time, short trips, and do them alone, to stay in touch with yourself.
- Exercise, regularly or whenever you can, simple yoga asana, help you maintain the equilibrium.
- Expectation Management, be prepared that your life over the next few years will be demanding, the good news is that the body adjusts to the demand effectively with time. So, until then know your outlet to cope with the demand, be it swimming, writing, sleeping, indulge in it, drift away from work a little while.
- Eat well, small regular meals, will keep your system running, you will have to work long hours, prepare for that, tea or coffee whatever keeps you going, do hydrate yourself. Avoid drinking (at least on working days J)
- Be pleasant to people at work.
- Find your sweet spot, associate with a firm that does the kind of business you enjoy.
- Stay sane, have a sense of humour, enjoy the kind of work you have chosen, don’t take yourself too seriously.
- Be a good listener, you will be surrounded by intelligent and bright people, learn quick, be smart and rise up the ladder soon, there is breathing space up there.
- Learn from every experience, learn not only from success but also from mistakes.
- Take regular naps, quality of sleep is important not the quantity.
- Learn how to improve your performance in everything, automate repetitive jobs, will save you some time.
It is a known fact that, if you are a finance enthusiast or even interested in the industry of Investment Banking, it is essential to know two primary sides in this field. These two are known as the buy side and the sell side and for anyone who is contemplating a career in Investment Banking, it becomes important to know the difference between the two. Studies state that these two sides, make up for both the halves of the Financial Markets. In spite of this, there are a number of professionals who find it very difficult to grasp, the exact meanings of these two concepts. Let’s try and dissect them for our convenience. The sell side is basically associated with all of those entities and processes, that facilitate the decision making of those entities, which are involved in the buy side. While on the other hand, the buy side is basically associated with all of those entities, that are primarily involved in making the investments.
When it comes to the various institutions and firms, that work on the sell side of Investment Banking, these include firms that involve Investment Banking, Commercial Banking, Stock Brokers, Market Makers and other Corporate Finance firms. On the other hand, the buy side is inclusive of Asset Managers, Hedge Funds, Institutional Investors, Retail Investors and so on. The professionals or analysts, who work on the sell side, are usually higher in number than those involved in the buy side, mainly because of the fact, that their work is dedicated to analyzing specific sectors and companies.
The companies, that are involved in sell side are in charge of keeping track of the Stocks, the performance of various companies, as well as projecting the future financial transactions. These companies basically belong to the field of Equity Research and are responsible for ‘selling’ of ideas, and their work involves analyzing a number of quarterly results of all the financial reports of a particular firm. The buy side includes a number of firms, which are involved in deploying their capital, it essentially is a pool of funds, whose primary use is for investing. We can thus infer, that these firms on the sell side are basically involved in providing services to all those firms that are involved in taking investment decisions.
Moving on to the jobs of the professionals, working on these two different but equally important sides, we can conclude that the goal of a sell side is to basically advise on research and close the deal; while on the other hand, the ultimate goal of the buy side is to generate investment returns for their various clients. An analyst, working on the sell side, has to generate independent reports, on the basis of their own research, while an analyst working on the buy side use these very reports, in order to conduct their recommendations on the kind of investment decisions that their client must take. These fields provide a lot of lucrative opportunities, provided a candidate has specialization certificates, from industry-endorsed training institutes like Imarticus Learning.
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Every finance aspirant, at one point or another, envisioned themselves as one among the many professionals in crisp suits and black pencil skirts, walking along the hallowed hallways banks like Morgan Stanley. While some individuals choose the more tried and tested route to achieve this aspiration, like pursuing their MBA, there are many others who make use of new and innovative ways to achieve their ambition. These ways include pursuing of intensive professional training courses, which are becoming popular by the day. Courses offered by Imarticus Learning are gradually becoming the go-to courses, chosen by those especially who wish to become Investment Bankers.
One of the most exciting areas of work, in the field of Investment Banking, is working in the front office. This area is usually what most of the exciting Investment Banking movies revolve around and it’s here that the real game is played. The ‘front office’ is divided into Sales and Trading, Corporate Finance and Research. It may be seen that the recent times have been experiencing a great amount of technological change in these three sub-fields of Investment Banking. Artificial Intelligence and business process automation are two of the many analytics technologies, with the help of which these three fields are attempted to be deconstructed.
Let’s begin with Sales and Trading, roles in this sphere are popularly known as the alpha roles in Investment Banking. The professionals working on these positions were considered to be the leaders of the wolf pack and they were very capable of getting away with just about anything. This has changed as the ‘nerds’ have steadily begun to replace them. This shift is the result of technology specifically, computer engineers taking up the positions. Goldman Sachs reportedly had over 30% of computer engineers as their traders. Recently another big gun, JP Morgan hired their Global Head of Machine Learning from Microsoft. What is surprising about this recruitment, is that the professional has absolutely no background in finance whatsoever.
When it comes to Investment Banks, a huge chunk of their work is carried on by the Mergers and Acquisitions Departments and the IPOs. It is common knowledge that artificial intelligence has already begun to make its presence felt in the field of accounting. Similarly, Corporate Finance is not being left behind as there are a number of well-paid analysts, managing the sweaty work for their Managing Directors. The field of IPOs is also being transformed, much similarly to what the CFO of Goldman Sachs has to say. He says, “Goldman Sachs has already mapped 146 distinct steps taken in IPOs offering stock and most of them are begging to be automated”. It won’t be long before stock market is made up of all the secondary markets created by FinTech companies.
Anyone who is a finance aspirant would be expected to know the difference between ‘active funds’ and ‘passive funds’. The million dollar ideas of all of those Portfolio Managers who build active products come from paid research teams at various Investment Banks. In the recent times, this basic financial commentary is speedily automated. With technologies like the blockchain technology and banks teaming up with software companies, it seems that the entire banking sector is set to undergo an overhaul, courtesy of AI and Data Science.
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The chief regulatory body, which is supposed to deal with all the finance and banking related decisions, is the Government of India. In the recent times, this body seems to have taken a considerable amount of decisions in order to strengthen the Indian Banking Sector. Some of which are as follows.
In the month of July 2016, the Government of India reportedly allocated about 3.41 billion USD. This amounts to Rs 22,915 crore, was allocated in the form of capital infusion to 13 public sector banks. This move is believed to increase the economic growth of the country by improving the liquidity and lending operations of these public sector banks.
The Reserve Bank of India has already begun on its move to make all transactions, digital in nature and absolutely paper free. Following in the same vein the RBI has released the Vision 2018 document, which primarily aims at increasing the use of electronic payments, through all the divisions of the society. This move will not only increase the usage of digital channels but also boost the customer base for mobile banking.
All the commercial banks which are scheduled will now be allowed to grant non-fund based facilities including partial credit enhancement (PEC), to all customers including those that do not avail any fund based facility from any of the banks present in India.
The Union Budget, which was announced in the year 2016-17 had a provision towards interest subvention. This provision is basically made to help in reducing the burden of loan repayment by the farmers. On account of this, an amount of 15,000 crore INR is being granted by the government.
The Government of India is looking to set up an exclusive fund, which will be a part of the National Investment and Infrastructure Fund (NIIF). This fund will basically be set up for dealing with all the stressed assets of banks. This fund will be taking over all the assets, which although viable do not have any additional fresh equity from promoters to complete the projects.
Post the massive drive that was conducted by the government to open up a number of bank accounts, quite a large number of Indians were financially included in the banking sector. The Reserve Bank of India plans on coming out with guidelines, which will be dealing with the basic know-your-customer norms. These norms would be of the primary focus of protecting the consumers.
The government of India is well on a warpath, to provide insurance, pension and credit facilities to all of those citizens, who were excluded from enjoying the benefits offered by the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)
In a bid to provide relief to all the state level, electricity providing companies, the government has proposed to its lenders that, about 75% of their loans would soon be converted to state government bonds.
Thus with so many new and effective schemes falling into place, courtesy the government of India, things are looking quite positive for the banking sector. This is great news for those finance enthusiasts who opt for special training programs, offered by training institutes such as Imarticus Learning in the field of Finance and Investment Banking.
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Industry Report: Investments and Developments
This report analysis would be mainly dealing with all the key investments and developments in Indian banking sector.
Starting from the basic, central level, the RBL Bank Limited, a private sector bank in India, has reportedly raised about Rs. 330 crore as a result of their association with CDC Group Plc. This is a UK based financial development institution and will be helping the RBL bank, to strengthen their capital base, in order to meet their future needs.
The World Bank has reportedly signed an agreement with The State Bank of India, which is worth Rs. 4200 crore. This agreement basically deals with connecting all the solar rooftop projects in India, which are also known as GRPV, and will be receiving financing as a part of this agreement.
JP Morgan Chase, which is considered to be the largest bank in America, has been in talks of expanding their operations in India. They have gotten a head start on the same, with three new branches in, Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai which will be an addition to the current branch in Mumbai.
An investment management company, known as the Canada Pension Plan, has reportedly bought a large stake, which it bought away from a Japan based, banking corporation called Sumitro Mitsui. These said stakes were in Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd.
India’s very first small finance bank, began its operations by launching about ten branches in the state of Punjab. The Capital Small Finance Bank as it is officially known aims at increasing the number of its branches to about twenty nine, in the current financial year of 2016-17.
Taking a step towards making India, as cashless economy, an e-wallet company, Freecharge, has partnered with Yes Bank and Mastercard. This partnership is in order to launch a new concept of Freecharge Go. This would be a virtual card, with the help of which consumers can pay for goods and services, at online shops as well as offline retailers.
This year, the economy of India would be majorly targeting at being self-sufficient and in the lieu of the same, te government of Andhra Pradesh has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Exim Bank of India, in order to promote exports within this state.
Moody’s, a Global Rating Agency, seems to have upgraded its outlook towards the Indian Banking System. This move is to stabilize its negative based on the assessments of about five drivers, which include improvement in operating environment, stable asset risk and capital scenario.
Rockefeller Foundation, a non-profit organization based out of America, has backed a private Equity Investor known as Lok Capital. This investor has a plan of investing up to USD 15 million in a couple of proposed small finance banks in India, over the period of next year.
The RBI, has reportedly given in principal approval, to about 11 applications, which were in favour of establishing payment banks. These banks may accept deposits, but they are to refrain from extending any loans.
With the chances of the economy and the cash inflow looking bright, the banking and investment industry shows great promise for aspirants.
We are all aware about the road to a great career in Investment Banking isn’t complete without the biggest roadblock, which is the interviews. For any freshly minted candidate, there always is a string of common run of the mill questions revolving mainly around their weaknesses, the 5 year plans that they intend to work on and so on. But, what usually catches the candidate off guard, is the list of weird questions. While these questions may be weird and a tad bit scary, they are the absolute crucial determinants, of whether you get that coveted position, or not.
Here’s a list of freakishly weird questions, which some of the top-notch banks asked in the year of 2016:
1. “How would you value a cow using a discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis?”
The above question, as out of the blue as they come, was asked to a potential candidate in an interview round, in London Based Firm last year. While any DCF question, is extremely inevitable in corporate finance interviews, there are those Bovine DCF questions, which are not.
2. “How many pairs of shoes do you expect to wear over your lifetime?”
An interview is absolutely incomplete, without any brain teaser questions, which ensure that your analytical skills undergo a rigorous jog. This was most expectantly one of them. While the internet service engine, Google, might deem such questions as a tad bit irrelevant, all the to banks out there just cannot get enough of these. The above question was reportedly asked in an interview for risk management at Nomura.
3. “What would you do if we gave you 10,000 Euros now?”
If you are a finance aspirant looking to get into the field of investment banking, you would surely be expected to know all there is about Investments. Any bank, regardless of its position, expects the candidates to have some very solid investment ideas in response to questions like these. The above question was asked during an interview wit ICAP.
4. “Who is your best friend?”
This question was asked during the final round of an interview, conducted by Credit Suisse. In their attempt to go beyond the technicalities and mundane aspects, many HR managers try to ask unconventional questions. The above question was asked in a similar vein, in order to know about the candidate, through the eyes of someone, who is close to them.
5. “How would you manage the portfolio of an astronaut that will be isolated from earth for the next 10 years?”
This is another question, in the line of most out-of-the-context yet, relevant questions. This one in particular was asked during an interview about securities at Goldman Sachs and the student who was asked all of these questions said it was the best interview of all times.
As the popularity of Investment Banking, as a field grows, the number of professionals wanting to be a part of this field also multiplies. In order to look for the perfect candidates, these top banks usually end up asking very out of the box questions. To become thoroughly industry endorsed, professionals usually pursue certification training programs, Join Imarticus Learning, here we offer proper training to crack such interviews.