How Analytics is Helping Law Enforcement Prevent Crime?May 21, 2019
Spiralling rates of crimes is a deterrent to national growth, especially in the developing Indian economy. It impacts investments, tourism, and perceptions of growth both nationally and internationally thus impacting the stock markets too.
The need for constant analysis, regulation of and monitoring of crimes is the bounden duty of the government and the police. Analytics can prove to be the tool to effectively maintain order and law in India while also providing for safe tourism and image building as a strong and safe economy.
Data Analytics can help in crime detection, deriving suitable measures, actions, and conclusions and thus suggest and forecast necessary governmental measures for crime prevention. The field of analytics of crimes uses techniques and tools of statistical analysis which helps use the data available to detect and resolve crimes quickly. They can also be used in prosecution, evaluation of crime prevention measures, analysis and patterns of victims, criminals, modus operandi, traffic problems, the internal functioning of police departments, patrolling and strategizing.
Some of the ways in which the Indian police are making use of the advancements in technology and analytics capabilities are discussed briefly below.
- The volumes of Big Data generated is stored for 28 years by the NCRB and runs into several petabytes of data in the form of audio clips, videos, text and chat files, footage from CCTV cameras, location files with GPS information, biometric information and so much more. The analytics, cleaning and storage issues are now being worked upon by the Indian police who use these records as a storehouse of both national and international criminals. This move helps in tactical and crime analysis of crimes thus curbing the crime rates.
- Being able to forecast and map crime infested areas the police are now using ML for predictions, tracking persons and recommendations on curbing criminal activities.
- The Delhi police in collaboration with ISRO have developed a satellite analytical method and system named CMAPS used for crime mapping, predictions, and analytics. This helps them maintain order, enforce laws and curb crimes.
- In Jharkhand IIM Ranchi helps the police force implement systems, evaluate records, time and date of crimes, types of crimes with locations to be able to offer predictions, forecasts, and solutions to crimes in infested zones.
- The police in Bangalore in association with IBM trains it’s officers on the state-of-art software for data analytics to make the best use of crime curbing techniques.
- The Indian police systems are being updated with self-learning ML algorithms useful for crime analytics, analyzing large data volumes and providing accurate predictions and forecasts based on data accumulated and stored.
Predictions of crime-rates:
Such predictions fall into one of the below three groups.
- Based on different crime types like dacoity, robbery, assault of women, trafficking of children, rape, molestations, etc.
- Based on cluster parameters volume of lost property, lost lives numbers, the number of persons involved in the crime, modus operandi, method followed by the criminals, etc.
- Based on area and its rate of crimes.
The Indian police follow the IACA or International-Association-of- Crime-Analysts techniques which use four distinct classes of functions to define its areas of analytical operations. They are
1) Analysis of crime-intelligence functions involving data on offenders, victims, networks, and organizations and is much lesser in India when compared to the USA.
2) Analysis of Tactical functions where the deployment of police human resources, patrol patterns and investigation are the major thrust areas.
3) Analysis of Strategic functions where policies, strategies, developmental issues, prevention, and evaluation methods and techniques are a priority.
4) Analysis of Administrative functions like administrative and interaction needs of the police, government interactions, and data regarding the police community is given precedence.
Technological advancements, science, and analytics can help curb crime rates and make the common man’s life secure, happy and simple with efficient policing and measures to curb all kinds of crimes. The Indian police have embraced the changes wholeheartedly and look to succeed in their ventures detailed above with able help from institutions and the common people.
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