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Core Investment Banking Activities That Can Help an Organization to Grow.
Core Investment Banking Activities That Can Help an Organization to Grow.

Investment banks, in the true sense, are financial intercessors, amongst people who need funds and people who can provide funds. They ensure that there is a flow of cash and distribution of capital. In a simple example, they are the bridge that brings together, those who need money to invest in businesses, like factories with equipment demands, with those, who have the money to invest, all the while, forming the markets which allow capital and controls price for these monetary trades.

Over time these financial intermediaries have evolved and have gotten more complex and competitive. And hence have started offering many supplementary amenities.

Investment Banks essentially have two lines of activities.

  • Sell Side – here securities are traded not only for cash but at times for other securities like for example, in facilitating transactions.
  • Buy Side – this is the advising lateral, where to advise on entities like, Private Equity Fund, Mutual Funds, Hedge Funds, is given to establishments that are concerned with buying investment services.

Core activities of Investment Banking can be better explained in three major divisions.

Front Office, the Middle Office and the Back Office.

Front Office, is generally known as the revenue generating unit, this is where most of Investment Banking contracts take place. It offers many services, namely assisting firms in Mergers and Acquisitions, Corporate Finance I.e. managing fund requirements for daily operations. It also offers Professional Investment Management for establishments. For certain high net worth clientele, preparing Market Research Reports, around Strategy Management and Wealth Distribution and Risk Reports. And lastly, it also involved in Sales and Trading activities for their clientele.

Middle Office, includes functions of Compliance with government regulations and restrictions for professional clients like the banks and financial divisions etc…,

It also manages Capital Flow, basically, the function is to monitor the flow of cash in and out from an establishment, to ensure required liquidity for it to function, without getting into any financial difficulties.

Back Office, it is the glue that holds the investment bank together. It primarily manages the Operations and Technology, for things such as Trade Confirmations, safeguarding that the securities bought are correct, sold and settled for the right amount. To ensure the software and technology platforms are efficient, at times creating relevant trading algorithms, so that traders can function effortlessly.

Investment Banking is significant for corporates as they need to raise capital. By taking the above-mentioned functions into reflection, the area of opportunity for investment banking is huge. Therefore, to stay updated, financial handlers should take stock of the development around them, so that they can adapt and take advantage of the offerings.


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How Retail Banking is Affecting the Industry
How Retail Banking is Affecting the Industry

Retail banks offer financial services for businesses and individuals alike. Essentially, they provide, banking products and services to individual customers, for entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial purposes. Banking significantly has always been on the ‘retail’ side I.e. they raise income from large sources such as retail depositors. So while talking about retail banking, the focus is mostly on the asset side, which means lending to the retail side.

On the whole, retail banking is offering products and services that impact both sides of the balance sheet. On the Liability side, it offers, fixed, current, saving accounts, and on the asset side, it offers mortgages and loans, such as personal, housing, automobile, educational etc…,

It is circumstantial to note, that most economies in the developing countries are now seasoned enough to ask for products and services not only during the transitional phases but also during maturing phases as well. For the same reason, it is observed that retail banking is implementing all products and services to match the current needs and the future demands of the growing economies.

Typically, the retail banks, on the asset side, offer financial services to the clients. Their clients are majorly divided into ‘mass’ and ‘class’ clientele. For the mass clientele, these banks offer blanket services that mostly cover their needs in term of consumer credits, for example, home loans mortgages, credit cards. By doing this the banks generate extra liquidity that assists the economy. For the class clientele, which is defined as niche customers, these banks customise their products and services to match the high net worth. This can also be termed as private banking, adding to the liquidity pool.

The availability of cash through easy credit methods by the retail banks, allows people to spend their future earnings today, directly impacting consumption of products and development of industries, leading to developing economies.

Now on the Liability end, retail banks offer a secured place, for people to park their existing funds, safely in the form of saving/current accounts, fixed deposits, other financial products, which get them higher returns, than parking the money under the pillow would. The interest rate, which is used as an apparatus to maintain monetary liquidity in the economy is set by the RBI. And you will see a slight fluctuation in the rates from time to time.

Lastly, Retail Banks allow you to manage your transactions fluently, and conveniently through debit cards and online transactions virtually without actually exchanging cash.

Now, since we understand the contours of retail banking, let’s understand how do they work, well, it is very simple, they make money by loaning the deposited cash on higher interest rates, than what they offer on deposits.

How do they affect the industries and subsequently the economies?

They are a supply tool for finance in any economy, the regulations permit them to have a minimum percentage of deposits on hand, and hence they have the flexibility to loan out the remaining amount. Creating a flow of money lent, from one source, going into the borrower’s account. That is how they create a deposit rate. Now visualise, what a powerful tool this is for any growing economy.

The retail banking space is a welcome retreat in the middle of all turbulence caused by global financial demands, which people struggle to deal with every day. Customer deposits, gathered by retail banking become a central source of steady funds for many banks. In this endeavour it becomes important for banks to continue introducing innovative frontiers in the space of retail banking, to maintain relevance to the customers. Banks can achieve this through an essential bond that it can create, with the customers by understanding and connect with their needs and preferences.

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Blockchain Revolution: Prosperity in the Era of the Internet
Blockchain Revolution: Prosperity in the Era of the Internet

The blockchain is more than technology empowered by Bitcoin, on the contrary, there are many Blockchains, and it is not only limited to financial services companies. Many research firms have termed Blockchain as the next big revolution, most of them wanting to merge Blockchain with the Internet of things.

What is Internet of Things (IOT)? To put it very broadly, the internet of things can be considered as the third wave of development on the internet. It is an odd set of information, interaction, transaction, which is supplemented to the internet, with the help of devices which are armed with data sensing, analysing and communication abilities, with the use of internet protocols. It basically bridges physical and digital realities through automation, which aids in the improvement of businesses and people’s lives.

Distributed Ledger Technology is also known as Blockchain meets the Internet of Things….

So the internet of things applications is distributed in nature, and Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology, hence it is only customary that they will play a part in the way devices communicate with each other directly.

Blockchain technology is designed on the basis, where through applications and transactions, interactions can be done. On the meeting of specific conditions, smart contacts are automatically carried out. These conditions could be anything ranging from goods to environmental conditions or any other smart applications that support specific internet of things (IOT) processes.

Therefore, by this theory the Blockchain technology can, not only merely support, but also improve the agreement with IOT, further adding to the compliance with IOT features, and help in managing the cost effectiveness.

How will this bring about a Revolution in Our lives?……

Perhaps on the onset of the next decade, almost most of our daily live devices will be online and integrated with the internet of things, connecting us, taking responsibility for all our actions, monitoring and recording most of it, like our health with the doctors, our transactions with our banks, the development of our businesses, managing groceries etc. Sensitive data will be online, and we will need to find a way to communicate and transact this data securely through peer-to-peer interactions. The ‘internet of things’ will need a ledger of ‘everything’. If transactions are done automatically between devises, they won’t be able to use your credit card, they will need a new format for new business models for it.

Imagine if we have autonomous cars in the future, they will need to connect with your device, in this case a phone, to search, transact and communicate and pay for your transport, hence your phone will need a more secure way to make payments and transactions around sensitive data and value, and the only way to manage that is the distributed ledger technology that Blockchain offers.

Now imagine applying this technology for electronic voting, where your vote is not only confirmed, but private to you and you can also confirm the counting of it, this will revolutionise traditional electronic voting, replace it by voting on Blockchains.

Wishful thinking……?  not really, it is established, this can be achieved. However, as always it is in a nascent stage and yet has to overcome a few challenges like assured security in technology, practical and operational challenges, and lastly legal and compliance issues, managing new complexities.

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5 Ways to Understand the Importance of Big Data
5 Ways to Understand the Importance of Big Data

By now it is mostly common knowledge, that Big Data is essentially a large volume of information collected through myriad sources, in various formats, it is also understood that this big data has a key to all future plans and strategies that the company needs to adopt if it truly wants to succeed.

True, big data is information gathered from the internet enabled services, social media, and other similar sources. It can be typically characterised by 4 V’s…

  • Volume – it is getting vast as compared to the traditional sources through which data used to be captured
  • Variety – data comes from various sources, machine generated and people generated
  • Velocity – the speed at which this data is being generated, it is phenomenal and never stops
  • Veracity – basically the quality of data, as one has little control of the volume.

The evolution in the technology has helped organisations apply the findings, not only while strategizing but in almost every aspect of the functioning of an organisation. For internal and external benefits. Merely capturing data is not beneficial, but to understand what insights you get from that data is paramount in decision making. In the ever evolving business environment, having historical insights is not enough, but to get accurate future predictions, using data analysis and predictive modelling and visualisation techniques is also colossally essential, mostly while developing strategies.

Big data, eliminates intuition such that all imperative decisions can be made through a structured approach, and with a data-driven insight.

To put it simply it is a broad three step process performed in a loop. (a) Manage Data- extract relevant data (b) Perform analytics on the data – gain insights and use algorithm’s (c) Make Decisions.

Big Data can further Benefit organisations in the below mentioned 5 areas

  1. Comprehend market Conditions – through big data, organisations can predict what future customer behaviour will be, purchasing patterns, choices, product preferences. This will leverage the company, and help contest competitors.
  2. Know your Customer Better through big data analysis, companies come to know the general thought process and feedback in advance and make course corrections. Companies can reduce complaints and act on it before it becomes big. There are big data tools that predict negative emotions, prompt action can be taken to mitigate the same by organisations.
  3. Control Online Reputation – Sentimental analysis can be done through Big Data Tools; thus a company can check on what is being said by whom online and manage their online image efficiently and effectively.
  4. Cost Saving – firstly, there might be an initial cost of application of big data tools, but in the long run, the benefits will outweigh the cost. Secondly, with the application of real-time big data tools, the IT staff will be less burdened, so these resources could be used elsewhere, and lastly, the application of big data technology will make storing of data easier and more accurate.
  5. Availability of Data – Through big Data tools, relevant data can be available, in an accurate and structured format, in real time.

The value of Big Data Insights is priceless. One needs to have the patience and discipline while application of the same. Ask the right question to gain accurate insights. With the quality of data, the possibilities are great, for businesses to flourish.

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How is The Blockchain Transformation Helpful?
How is The Blockchain Transformation Helpful?

From the many complex definitions, one can derive a simple explanation of the term.

To put purely, Blockchain is a technology that records, manages and confirms transactions, where all the participants connected to the transactions hold the entire record of it, through peer-to-peer verification of transactions, as opposed to a centralised platform, where information needed to be passed over to any if required. Here, there is no central recording, but each participant has the information. Bitcoin operates this system, minus any central body.

Now imagine, all the complexities involved in general transactions, communication across channels and intermediaries, contracts and agreements and analysis of the same, cross-referencing and transfers if any, confirming authenticity and identity and conducting all this along with managing the security. All these activities and checkpoints would keep loads of people, like accountants, lawyers and admin staff, busy for innumerable hours.

With the introduction of Blockchain, the maze of such communication and staff would actually be non-existent, at least in theory, as all the above-mentioned documentation would be automatically recorded and verified and accessed by all participants over the same secured platform. The bureaucracy will be eliminated. Everything will be streamlined and united on one big database.

The blockchain is a complex set of computers, which authenticates, that a transaction has been taken place, before recording it on a ‘chain’ of computer codes. The beauty is that the details of the transactions are recorded on a ledger that can be viewed by anyone who is on the network.

This technology could bring down the budgets of banks by cutting down drastically on the infrastructure costs, specifically on global transactions, securities trading and regulatory compliance. It is predicted, the impact will be close to $20billion by the year 2022.

Mutual Distributed Ledger Technology another term for Blockchain, has the perspective to transform the insurance industry globally. There are many possibilities and many prospects across industries as well. In fact, any business, where data is shared across multiple participants, or which requires data verification, or when interactions are time bound, or where multiple parties update data, is true and applicable, then they can take advantage of the Blockchain technology.

Blockchain thus holds the revolutionary promise that the internet did almost two decades ago. Hence, not only in the financial services, (although it is considered as a breakthrough for financial interactions) but business figures like Bill Gates, Richard Branson and the ex-UK prime minister, praised its potential.

The technology, although extremely promising, can be considered to be in the nascent stage. It has a few challenges like security and regulatory backing. It is difficult to confirm if the technology can, perhaps, in the future scale itself enough, inefficiency, by developing the capability, of meeting these challenges. Nevertheless, it is promising enough to ensure that with the correct understanding and application, it can be coined as one of the key players.


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How can your Business Benefit from Artificial Intelligence (AI)?
How can your Business Benefit from Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

In recent times, one catches a lot of innovations being made in the field of Artificial Intelligence. AI interestingly is not a recent term, but has its origin, from as long ago as the 1950’s. However, it was only during 1980-2000 that Machine Learning under, the umbrella of AI started gaining significance. The most exciting breakthrough in AI development started in the 2010’s, known as Deep Learning, which got the world excited with the capabilities it promises. Today’s AI is a combination of machine learning and deep learning techniques.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is not what most people perceive, it’s not some Sci-fi movie where the world is fighting robots and machines. It’s more real and present in our daily lives than ever before. Most businesses are integrating it into their routine yet essential procedures. IT companies are assigning huge budgets towards the development of the components of AI, like, machine learning, computer vision, natural language processing, robotics and advanced analytics.

According to a recent survey on ‘Top 10 strategic technology trends in 2017’, AI is at the top of the list. And it is not only companies in Information Technology that can benefit from AI, but several industries and its functions can too. It will be very naïve for companies and industries to ignore the developmental advantages that AI can offer, and not consent their use due to financial or other reasons.

Let’s learn from an example, in the early 90’s to 2000, there was a boom in eCommerce companies that sprung up in the market. However, retail giants ignored the threat only to start investing heavily on portals later in the day and incur losses. Playing catch up rarely produces happy results. In AI there is a sporadic opportunity today, for small and large organisations to make it a part of their business before they get left behind.

Which industries can benefit from AI?

Companies across are using AI to stay competitive in business and to increase productivity, consequently enhancing customer experience.

According to an article from Harvard Business Review, most businesses are using the AI technology in the fields of Information Technology (fixing technical glitches, automation, compliance and security), Marketing & Online Marketing (media purchasing, promotions, analytics) Financial Accounting (Financial trading etc.), Customer Service (managing escalations, automating call distribution, customer interaction).

According to the same HBR article, AI will be impacted most of the back office manual, repetitive work functions in the departments of HR, IT, Finance by 2020. Making employees available for more complex tasks, than dealing with password resets or answering HR policy related queries.

For industries such as Manufacturing, Robotics will play a huge role in eliminating human intervention in restrictive, mundane, repetitive tasks, bringing down the margin of error, it will then be more effective than humans.

Customer Support, specifically in Brands, Retailers, and Telecom, and Employee Support which focuses within an organisation, are two areas to benefit from AI intervention the most.

Processes which could benefit are Data Entry Work Process Automation, Development of Machine Learning to handle repetitive work, and Creating Intelligent Digital Agents to resolve customer queries through web chat.

Hence, without a doubt, AI is here to make our lives simple and exciting provided, we are logically in its application. It is making major changes in the way we deal with our clients and internal external customers, by getting immediate access to information and tapping employee talent for better and more productive use.


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What are the much-needed Business Facet of Modern Data Integration?
What are the much-needed Business Facet of Modern Data Integration?

There is a great paradigm shift, in the way data information management systems are perceived. And rightly so, as there are massive amounts of data being created every day. The data is moving sinuously in many directions and people want to access that data from all over places. The old methods of integration have become unsuitable in today’s time, and demands.

The age of Big data demands big changes. Around 80% of data is unstructured, we get this data from different sources and enterprises. Data in Applications and Cloud is also growing at a constant pace with about 20% of data being touched by the ‘Cloud’. In some sense, we live in a matrix of data and information, with an ever increasing source base and target base.

This advancement opens the pathway to new and refined approaches. One cannot use technologies based on extract, transform and load methods (ETL), as it becomes a bottleneck. One would need a massive amount of custom coding to use these old world tools. Even then, we would be left with a list of challenges and time-consuming activities like lack of documentation, very limited reusability, dedicated manual hours, giving rise to increased cost with low productivity.

We now know, that modern data is complex and more distributed, and if we plan to take advantage of this data, we need to plug the incoming data to modern data integration.

So that you don’t waste time in fighting the tide, there are some Principles of Modern Data Integration which help us with some new insights from the massive data matrix that surrounds us.

  • Process data locally, place an agent locally, so the data is processed at the host platform before moving it. By doing this we can eliminate any bottlenecks.
  • Modern data integration permits you to use powerful databases that already exist with built in functions to handle workflow, which can then be seamlessly blended, and distributed efficiently.
  • Move data point-to-point rather than through data integration servers. Modern data integration allows you to move the data at the correct time and avoid bottlenecks.  Also if you do not wish to move all the data, but to keep up with time, on certain occasions you can process data in the natural environment and only move the resulting base. So it removes the bottleneck, creates network space, and increases the speed in which data is saved.
  • For accessibility, transparency, and reusability, it is advisable to manage all the business rules and data logic centrally. Modern day data platforms can be managed centrally, avoiding the chaos of dispersed integrated applications.
  • Since modern data integration, through metadata repository, allows central management of all business rules and data logic templates, changes with new data or migratory data, across platforms can be done through the already available rules and logic, in an efficient and effective manner.

Therefore, it can be said, that modern data integration will eradicate many challenges that old data integration brought on. Moreover, it will create new capabilities and opportunities much beyond our expectation.


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Impact of Blockchain on Financial Services
Impact of Blockchain on Financial Services

Every now and then, one sees an introduction to new technology. After the outbreak of the ‘Internet’, almost two decades later, a technology that can truly revolutionise the way the financial services industry works has now come into play. The ‘Blockchain’. It is ready to take centre stage and from the looks of it will stay under the spotlight for good.

What is Blockchain?
Essentially Blockchain is a technology that assists in cryptocurrencies, it basically takes principles of cryptography and peer-to-peer networking, allowing unique monetary data exchange. To avoid any issues of double spend, by making the data easily assessable to all individuals in the network. A process is generated through which consensus can be reached, in making any changes if required to the ledger. It is a shared digital ledger.

The advantages or benefits of this technology are immense. To begin with, it offers transparency, traceability, is cost effective, very reliable, simple, eliminates any room for error, speeds up the process and offers a better quality of data.

With such great features, Blockchain will surely have a great Impact on ways it can transform the financial services industry.

Asset Management settlements, usually is a cumbersome process, with the introduction of Blockchain technology, the same process can be simplified. It can provide automated trade cycles, ensuring that everyone involved in the transaction has the same information. In doing so, besides the benefits of cost and accuracy, it could also eliminate brokers.

Claims processing in insurance companies could eliminate challenges like, incorrect claims, documents and legacy in isolation and manual processing. By introducing smart contracts on Blockchain, for transparency and accuracy, it could improve and simplify the risk model for insurances.

Trade finance in a supply chain is one of the most amazing opportunity for the application of smart contracts and Blockchain.

Payments, specifically the global transactions are massive, slow in the process, and costly in the transaction, also not always traceable in its entirety and time-consuming. The blockchain is the ready solution for it eliminating all the said challenges.

Financial companies across are responsible for compliance with a number of requirements.

The introduction of Blockchain will ensure that a single digital source of ID will allow an effortless exchange of documents between banks and external agencies. It is established that Blockchain has immense potential, and if applied correctly can have tremendous positive impact for customers, banks and financial institutions. It is needless to say, that cost cutting in terms of layoffs will be unavoidable as very little intervention is required for operations.

For example, jobs which involve processing and reconciling might fade away. And at the same time, new opportunities in fields like encryption and identity protection will develop. Giving way to a more diverse range of careers which will come into play as Blockchain develops.


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IT Professionals and Engineers Need to Re-skill or Perish
IT Professionals and Engineers Need to Re-skill or Perish

There are a strong undercurrent and an emotion of turmoil Leverage in the IT sector over the last couple of months. The IT sector is facing a major upheaval, and the dust from the storm for Engineers and IT professionals seems to be far from settling down.

Yes, there have been some major layoffs by big industry giants. And it has created panic for young and mid- level employees. But panic is good, it helps you think forward and strategize on how to exist through evolution, panic helps you move from the ‘Why’ of a situation to the ‘How’ on resolution.

If one looks into the situation, it will be very clear that certain jobs and skills are becoming redundant or will be soon. The IT industry is not going through a turmoil but through a transition phase. And there are valid reasons for this change. It did not happen overnight and will not stop abruptly either.

Let us understand why this happened…

Advancement in IT Industry

Undoubtedly, these are uncertain times for the IT industry, but there is a logic to it. There has been some massive advancement in technology over the last couple of years in the field of IT services. It could be said that the growth in technology is happening at a more advanced stage and training/reskilling initiatives by companies or individuals are not able to keep pace with it.

Change in US Policy

Another reason leading to this chaos is the US policy on tightening the norms to issue the H1-B visa, promoting job retention for the American people as opposed to outsourcing. This is definitely a blow to the Indian IT sector which hired extensively, about half of H1-B visas were given to Indian nationals.


It is a known fact that Automation has gathered pace over the last couple of years. Low skill mundane tasks can now be automated and replaced, due to advances such as Artificial Intelligence, Process Automation, and Cloud Computing. Since jobs especially in India, in certain domains, were large of modest skills, the impact is graver. There is an immediate need to change and upscale essentially for people from IT and Engineering backgrounds, majorly in the mid or entry level jobs.

There is a whole diverse nature of jobs and parallel growth opportunities that have come up in this situation. While mundane skills are outdated, there are certain other requirements with major skill gap issues. It is the right time to dwell into and get yourself upskilled.

Leverage the Impact – Upskill Now!

Consider the Analytics domain, which according to NASSCOM, the sector is witnessing exponential growth and is expected to be worth $16 billion by 2025.

Imarticus Learning’s awarding winning Data Science Prodegree, in collaboration with Genpact as a Knowledge Partner, offers a comprehensive curriculum and is ideal for IT professionals to leverage their current skill sets and transition to the Data Analytics space.

Imarticus also offers certifications in Business Analytics, Big Data Hadoop, SAS Certification, R Programming, Python, Data Visualization courses, which are strategically designed in association with industry stalwarts.
Taking up these courses with Imarticus will help your career stir out of the testing times ahead, leveraging the impact of the downfall in the IT services industry.

Survival of the fittest is an essential law of nature. IT services are undergoing a revolution and to keep up with the pace, one will have to adapt and embrace the new.

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How to keep up with The Changing Needs of Customers in  Investment Banking
How to keep up with The Changing Needs of Customers in Investment Banking

Investment banking is a division within the bank, which focuses on capital creation for other organisations. Holding the responsibility to underwrite new debt and equity securities, facilitating mergers and acquisitions, and also brokering trades for companies or private sectors. Investment banking also offers guidance to issuers regarding placement of stocks.

The common services and approach adopted by investment banking in the past, might not be amongst its best features today. Now is the time of not only adapting to change but creating the change. Business, as usual, might not be enough, hence with time, one can see the shift in the approach of investment banking. To create new capabilities, the banking sector is looking outside the box, it is looking at ways the ecosystem can be enhanced, so they are considering expansion in digital technologies, which can, in turn, open avenues and create utilities.

According to data collected through various research, to keep up with the evolution of financial services landscape, to be successful, banks will be forced to change the way they perceive themselves and their clients and will need to evolve their approach with the fundamental realisation to Simplify, Digitise and Innovate themselves.

Simplify so that cost can be managed and clients have a hassle free interface, basically offering convenience.

Digitise, well that is the need of the hour. For smoother internal and external customer interaction and retention.

And lastly Innovate, any system that has stood the test of time over years has done that only for its ability to adapt, however, if an industry is capable of bringing about the change, it can guarantee success and immortality. With the options that are present today, excessive availability to data, advanced research function, distributed ledger technology, with the accelerated speed at which the world is changing, investment banking needs to ground its existence by coming around it with flexibility and gumption.

There are many disruptors in this path and banks will have to tailor and channel pioneering products with innovative strategies to combat the same.

Some philosophies will need to be realigned……

The way profitability was perceived might need to be relooked, as the financial landscape continues to grow, banks will have to shift focus from margin driven products and profitability to volumes driven profitability.

The traditional components of diversified portfolios will need structured products so that it can offer tailored coverage to otherwise tough to acquire asset classes and subclasses. For the modest level of investment banks, this territory of structured by-products will become essential.

A confluence of disruptors is Blockchain, which will force the financial services transaction to digitise and securely distribute.

One can see timely intervention from the use of independent pricing vendors by a financial institution, to control competition, and create a sense of transparency and calm in transactions.

Banks will need to play to win, by creating the talent which can adapt to the digital upspring in operations and other critical customer dependent and focused departments.

It’s time to realign strategies keeping up with the changing ecosystem with the approach towards utilities. It is predicted that the year 2017-2018 will be the year of transition for investment banks.

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